Heil Hitler: The Nazi’s Drug Addiction

Today, I saw the WWII movie Dunkirk directed by Christopher Nolan. It’s an exceptional movie, and I highly recommend it to anyone who wants to learn about one of the most important events in the war. What made this film exciting for me was the knowledge that hard-core drugs made Dunkirk a possibility. Did you know that Hitler was a hardcore drug addict? Did you know the blitzkrieg was only possible because of meth? Did you know Nazis were given speed balls before kamikaze submarine missions? All of these questions are explained in the international bestseller Blitzed: Drugs in the Third Reich by Norman Ohler. I highly recommend this book because it completely changed my perspective on Nazi Germany. Up until this book, I saw the Nazis as superhuman- zealot nationalists who performed their tasks through the spirit of their beliefs; now I understand that their relentless drive came from drugs which kept them motivated, alert, and addicted to the war machine.

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In 1938, the German pharmaceutical company Temmler introduced Pervitin to the market. Pervitin was marketed as a magic medicine that provided energy, happiness, and the work ethic needed to expand the Third Reich. The magic of Pervitin lied in its main ingredient – methamphetamine aka Crystal Meth. This meth was available to all Germans and was given to soldiers in healthy doses during the blitzkrieg invasion of France. The blitzkrieg was only possible with Pervitin because the soldiers were able to go three days without sleep – the French soldiers couldn’t comprehend the artificial stamina of their opponents. The German tanks kept rolling because of the drugged soldier’s synthetic feelings of invincibility, and they ended up surrounding the Allies like a boa constrictor. The only escape route available for over 300,000 Allies was the coastal city of Dunkirk, France.

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Hitler, early on in his power, suffered from a host of stomach ailments which were probably due to stress and his diet. He searched for a doctor to help him, but no expert could help his infirmities; there was one doctor however that tried a different approach – his name was Theodor Morell. Morell gave Hitler vitamin injections which helped Hitler’s stomach issues – these injections quickly secured him as the Fuhrer’s personal physician. At the time of Dunkirk, Hitler was being lifted up by these daily vitamin injections which propelled his ego and narcissism – he halted the blitzkrieg because he didn’t want the military acting without his orders – in the end allowing all the allies to escape. By 1941, Hitler was in need of stronger drugs; Morell began a regimen of vitamins, animal hormones (Hitler was a strict vegetarian), and Eukodal. Eukodal is better known today as oxycodone – the fraternal twin to heroin.

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It didn’t take long before Hitler was addicted to these injections and by 1943 he was receiving even more drugs several times a day – high-grade cocaine, morphine, testosterone, and meth. Most of the high ranking Nazi staff were receiving similar injections from Morell while statewide propaganda ironically decried the drugs as “Jewish” poison not fit for the Aryan race. By the time of Hitler’s suicide in 1945, Morell had injected the “role model of Nazi health” over 800 times with 74 different substances. In the last years of his life, Hitler was receiving so many injections that he had track marks running up and down his veins. It was said that when Hitler received his injections, a cracking noise could be heard from his damaged vasculature and his blood oozed like gelatin because of its continuous exposure to animal hormones.

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The German army as a whole continued to receive state sanctioned meth throughout the war. The Third Reich would eventually experiment with cocaine and heroine – soldiers were given combinations of these three drugs to keep them fighting even when faced with utter defeat. Drugs were a tool for the Nazis and helped them accomplish superhuman tasks like the blitzkrieg, but in the end, both leaders and soldiers became burned out by their fleeting effects. Hitler was fueled by drugs, but drugs did not lead to the events of the Holocaust. Hitler’s hatred of the Jews began long before his first injection – as a healthy young man he dreamed of their extermination. The drugs hurt the Nazis more than anything. If Hitler weren’t addicted to drugs, he would have made less poor military decisions and prolonged the war – allowing greater time to kill victims in the concentration camps. Drugs in the Third Reich provided the energy for terror at the beginning of the fight but not the stamina needed for marathon fighting – oddly enough,  Morell was the Allies best weapon. 

“Hitler would go as white as a sheet and tightly clench his jaws, while his eyes would dilate. Everyone in his entourage would get panicky because these fits were always followed by an order to dismiss or to execute somebody.”
-Theodor Morell

Bringing a Gun to a Fist Fight

Last year marked the 100th anniversary of World War I. This war is looked over in history class and most people only know about it after seeing the movie War Horse. I finished an extremely arduous book, The Fourth Horsemen: One Man’s Secret Campaign to Fight the Great War in America by Robert Koenig, which details the German sabotage that took place during WWI. More specifically, it follows the life of Anton Dilger, a German physician originally born in America, who took up biological warfare against horses during the war. He was hired by Germany to grow anthrax and other bacteria to infect horses being bred in America for use by the Allies. This was quite an undertaking because he set up his own germ factory in the basement of a Washington D.C. house. The germs were bottled and given to paid saboteurs who spread them among war horses. They did this by putting germs in the food, water, noses, or blood stream (through injection) of the innocent animals. The hope was that the germs would spread throughout the congregated horses and cause mass death. The success of this sabotage is not completely understood but it is known that thousands on horses did die from disease during the war. Anton would eventually move to Spain to continue his sabotage but died ironically in 1918 from the Spanish Flu.

WWI is a war that stood at the intersection of 19th and 20th century technology. At the beginning of the war, horse cavalries were still used and many were massacred by the newly invented machine gun. I think every little boy has watched a movie of the American Revolution and thought, “…man if only I could go back in time and give them a machine gun or a plane!” That is pretty much how WWI was fought in its very first months. Additionally, animals like horses, mules, pigeons, elephants, and dogs were used regularly in battles to move clunky machinery or relay messages. The tank, airplane, and automobile were relatively new in 1914, so animals were still valuable because they provided more reliability and functionality. Chemical warfare was also in its infancy and many times allies would release toxic gas only to have the wind blow it right back in their faces. Germ theory only came about in the mid 1800’s and WWI was the first time that germs were grown for biological warfare. We should study WWI for its insights on how to prevent the misuse of technology. What technology will the wars of the future hold? We are in yet another transition of technology from human-controlled weapons to robotic-controlled weapons. Will artificial intelligence read up on WWI and see the advantages it has over us-think Terminator? I will continue to learn more about WWI because it was a war that not only helps me understand the 20th century but also the future of this century.  

What do you know about WWI? What can we learn from war that can prevent future wars? What is your favorite war to learn about?