The Communist in All of Us

Sometimes I get embarrassed when I read certain books in public; one time while I was working at an Elementary school I was confronted by a little girl who asked the simple question – “Why are you reading?” That is a funny story, but I have also gotten unamusing looks from adults with titles like Pride and Prejudice (In a purple cover) and The Book of Mormon. Stares get even icier when I grow my beard out and my appearance resembles that of a homeless man. I just recently reached the epitome of glances with my newest classic – The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx. I was reading this scary-sounding book on a park bench one day – my beard looked like a birds nest, and I had my hair up in a man bun. Suffice it to say; mothers walked hurriedly past me and phones were being primed for an Amber Alert. Books are compelling and in the wrong hands can cause a lot of problems; imagine seeing someone reading The ISIS Manifesto: A Guide to Being a Lonewolf. That is why 70 years ago it was hard finding books on Communism and why many libraries blacklisted specific titles. I have mixed feelings about this, but I do believe that it is essential to understand the logic of extreme political thought.

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The Communist Manifesto was a political pamphlet published in 1848 by the German Philosophers Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels (credited for editing). Europe at the time was in a post-French Revolution reordering; class struggle was preeminent and capitalism was taking over the world. The life of a poor laborer consisted of arduous factory work – think of the desperation experienced during the Dust Bowl but tinged with aristocratic barriers. Marx desired to rally the working class against the bourgeoisie (middle to upper class) just like the bourgeoise assembled to fight the aristocracy during the French Revolution. Below is a list of the Communist Parties’ objectives.

  1. Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes.
  2. Heavy progressive or graduated tax.
  3. Abolition of all right of inheritance.
  4. Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels.
  5. Centralization of credit in the hands of the State, by means of a national bank with State capital and an exclusive monopoly. 
  6. Centralization of the means of communication and transport in the hands of the State.
  7. Extension of factories and instruments of production owned by the State; the bringing into cultivation of waste-lands, and the improvement of the soil generally in accordance with a common plan.
  8. Equal liability of all to labour. Establishment of industrial armies, especially for agriculture.
  9. Combination of agriculture with manufacturing industries; gradual abolition of the distinction between town and country, by a more equable distribution of the population over the country.

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As history has shown, Communism doesn’t work. The idea of “equality” is great but in the Soviet Union – as one example – there were just as many divisions in society – rich and poor, ruling class and working class. What I have taken away most from this book is the idea that we are all a little Communistic. We all think we are 100% right on certain occasions and we believe that our way is the right way – think Liberal and Conservative. In Communist countries, there is no party system – no room for opposing viewpoints – no way to balance out opponents. There are truths in this world and I am not arguing that everyone’s opinion is “correct;” my point is that no individual or group of individuals has all the answers. The Democratic Party and the Republican Party need each other – the extremes of each lead to Communism or Fascism. The flaw with Communism was not that it sought equality; its flaw was the belief that one viewpoint could obtain equality. When we listen to others and learn from the past, we realize that truth lies in the middle. Be wary of extremes and be wary of individuals that proclaim their way is the only way. Marx was a genius, but he forgot what happened to Robespierre in the French Revolution – both examples of government were far from the middle and ended in disaster. What do you think about extreme political beliefs? Do you tend to be in the middle or a staunch fan of one particular party? I would love your comments.

History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce.
 -Karl Marx

The Christian Church and Jewish Hatred

Take this short history quiz.

  1. In what year did the first laws pass that required Jews to wear a special form of dress (making them identifiable in public), banned Jews from public office, forbade Jews from going out during Holy Week, and required Jews to pay a “Jew Tax?”

    A. 1933
    B. 1936
    C. 1215
    D. 1709

  2. Who was the first leader that actively forced Jews to live in a walled off “Ghetto?”

    A. Adolf Hitler
    B. Constantine
    C. Pope Paul IV
    D. Mussolini

  3. Who was the famous author of  The Jews and Their Lies

    A. Adolf Hitler
    B. Henry VIII
    C. Heinrich Himmler
    D. Martin Luther

  4. Name the famous person who said this quote: “By defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord.”

    A. Pope John
    B. Martin Luther
    C. Adolf Hitler
    D. Jesus

1. The answer is C. 1215. This was the year Innocent III, the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, convened the Fourth Lateran Council which wrote the aforementioned laws into Constitution 68 of the church.

2. The answer is C. Pope Paul IV. In addition to walling off all the Jews in Rome, only a mile from the Vatican, this Pope forcefully took Jewish babies for baptism, required Jews to kiss the ground where he had just stepped, and required Jewish men to wear yellow conical hats.

3. The answer is D. Martin Luther. The man who started the Protestant Reformation in 1517 wrote this 65,000 word book in 1543. He described the Jews as poisonous worms who should be put into forced labor, expelled for all time, and slain as a despicable group of people.

4. The answer is C. Adolf Hitler. Hitler wrote this in his autobiography Mein Kampf. This quote has roots in the biblical interpretation of Romans 11:25, “I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, so that you may not be conceited: Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in…” Medieval Christians used this verse as rationale to forcefully convert and persecute Jews throughout the 1st/2nd Millennium so that the end of times could begin and the Messiah could come again.

Did this quiz surprise you? I had no idea of the Catholic and Protestant Church’s history of antisemitism until I read Constantine’s Sword: The Church and the Jews by James Carroll. This is a monster book that won the National Book Award and took me three weeks to read. The whole book details the church’s views on antisemitism and how it nurtured the environment which allowed Hitler to slaughter 11 million Jews. This atrocious act was done without any major protest from the vast Christian population in Germany. Essentially, the church turned on the gas and Hitler was the one who lit the match-Christians didn’t directly kill 11 million Jews but they were responsible for the antisemitic environment that inundated the church and shaped many of Hitler’s beliefs. Hitler was a baptized Roman Catholic that was obviously off his rocker and took antisemitic views to a whole new level. But Hitler was not raised in a vacuum. The quiz I listed above highlights only a few incidences of Jewish hatred by the Christian church that occurred before Hitler’s time. During the first crusade, thousands of Jews were killed by righteous Christians on their way to Israel. During the Spanish Inquisition, Jews were tortured and many times killed for not converting to Christianity. During the Black Plague, Jews were blamed for the 25 million deaths because people believed they were poisoning wells. During the 13th/14th centuries in Italy and France there were mass public bonfires of confiscated Talmuds-one of the Jewish holy books.

The extent of the hatred towards Judaism is somewhat staggering and the next question you probably have is why all the hatred in the first place? This requires a extremely long answer that is best understood by reading Constantine’s Sword. To briefly explain it we have to go all the way back to the time of Jesus. Jesus was a Jew but this was soon forgotten by early Christians who saw Jesus as an outsider who was then crucified by the Jews. Concurrently,  Judas, the disciple who betrayed Jesus, framed many Christian’s views of Jews-betrayers, money obsessed, weak, sinister, etc. Added to this negative image was the fact that Jews rejected Christianity’s main belief-Jesus as the Messiah. Hence there was resentment from Christians towards “stubborn” Jews which eventually evolved into conspiracy theories, restrictive laws, and the mentality that Christians should not allow Jews to thrive because of their obstinate beliefs. Multiply all these views by 1900 years and you have Hitler officially being supported by the Catholic Church. In 1933, the Christians of Europe and America knew about Hitler’s antisemitism. Why didn’t they protest? Some did but the majority remained silent. This is because the antisemitism, by that point in time, was an established, almost commonplace belief system. I am not saying that the church supported the killings of 11 million Jews, but they did allow Hitler to continually worsen his antisemitic policies for almost 10 years.

I am a Christian. I know the Church does many amazing things. However, I know the Church is not perfect because it is made by man. I write about these things because we must recognize the sins of the past to prevent similar atrocities in the future. Today we have many Christians who view Muslims negatively. They view Muslims as backward unbelievers who are unloving and misguided-all the while questioning how a “peaceful” religion can motivate its followers to kill. Does any of this sound familiar?

 

News-The Junk Food of Information

When I was a kid I never worried about scary things on the news. One reason was that I didn’t watch the news and the other is that I knew my parents would protect me from danger. I was more worried about the killer clown in my bathroom or the witch at my bedroom window. Thankfully, these fears could easily be ameliorated by a nightlight or going to Mom and Dad’s room. Today I get scared from watching the news. It seems like every week there is a terrorist attack or world disaster that makes me feel sick about the future. The news is like a real world scary movie. After I watched The Ring I had to cover my TV with a blanket because of fear that it would turn on in the middle of the night. Similarly, after watching the news over the past few days, I second guessed some of my plans because ISIS was on my mind. Both of these examples include irrational fears, but unlike in the past, I can’t run to my Mom and Dad’s room anymore.

So should I give up watching the news? Being someone who loves to read and write, I thoroughly enjoy being up-to-date on the world around me. I don’t like to be the odd man out in conversations and usually I like to know the details so I can better inform my friends and family. There is a price to pay though when using the news to be informed-a negative attitude about the world’s future. Sure, some people will say, “I watch the news and it doesn’t bother me,” but I would argue that it does affect a person subconsciously. I wrote a post on Blink by Malcolm Gladwell that states our brains respond to things in mere seconds based on preconditioning. Among non-racist individuals, studies show that regardless of personal race (black or white), we react more negatively to black faces than to white faces. This phenomenon is obviously apparent between white police and young black men but it is also present in everyday life-what makes you more uncomfortable, a plane full of Arabs or a plane full of Caucasians? This is an ingrained survival method that has helped us make life saving decisions in the past-see snake, run like hell. In today’s world it isn’t the snake but instead images of terrorists, shooters, crazy drivers, scary diseases, and masked men that precondition us. It is estimated that 10% of teens and 40% of adults suffer from some kind of anxiety disorder (Source). I would argue that the news, and its effects on one’s future outlook, is a major source of anxiety. I think we should all look at news like we look at junk food. It tastes so good right at the moment, giving us a slight rush, but afterwards it makes us feel empty and slightly upset.

So what is one to do, be depressed/informed or happy/ignorant? How do we get to the level of happy/informed with the added benefit that planes of Arabs don’t make us subconsciously queasy? First, stop watching or reading online news. If you need to be informed daily, pick up a newspaper. Newspapers give you the information without all the anxiety ridden imagery or hateful comment sections. Second, subscribe to a high quality magazine like the New Yorker, The Atlantic, Time, etc. These are great sources of current material that usually look at multiple sides of an issue. Thirdly, read books about current topics that are affecting the world. Instead of watching the news on shootings read a book like Blink to understand what leads people to shoot in the first place; this will give you added tools when conversing about current events. I fully admit that the news scares me, but I do not admit that by abstaining from it I am less informed. By taking the time to read the aforementioned material, I am able to see the big picture of an event instead of a myopic-instantaneous viewpoint. Discard that junk food news and take in some healthy information-you’ll know what you’re talking about and your stomach won’t get so upset when thinking about the future.

Post 9/11 Potato Salad

Does anyone remember the War in Iraq? The Weapons of Mass Destruction? The invasion in 2003 with nearly everyone’s support? The War in Iraq and then subsequent war in Afghanistan was like a 4th of July party that starts out fun but ends with everyone getting food poisoning from the warm potato salad. We were fired up, we wanted revenge for 9/11, we wanted any excuse to right the wrongs. We got emotional. We didn’t look at all the facts. We jumped in blind holding George Bush’s hand. Eventually we would learn that shooting a hornets nest doesn’t get rid of a dangerous problem but rather makes it far worse. We are yet again repeating these mistakes with rhetoric following the Orlando shooting. There is fear against Muslims, ISIS, radical Islam, terrorists, and future attacks in general. Emotions are getting the best of us and leading us to irrational solutions: prevent all Muslims from entering the country, prosecute neighbors who do not call in suspicious behavior, patrol neighborhoods of Muslim-Americans, etc. How will these measures affect human behavior? They will divide Muslims and Non-Muslims even further. They will tell young Muslim-Americans that they cannot be trusted. They will create an “Us vs Them” mentality in targeted neighborhoods-decreasing the likelihood of sharing information. They will foster hatred, anger, and resentment in high risk individuals who are prone to “Lone-Wolf” attacks. They will shake the hornets nest and release even more dangers for America.

As I have previously written, ISIS does not practice anything close to Islam. It is like saying the white-supremacist Dylann Roof, who killed 9 people in a church last year in Charleston, practices Christianity. After that attack we did not bunch all Christians with Dylann Roof; and yes white-supremacists do use the Holy Bible and radical protestant views regularly in their zeitgeist of beliefs. There are over 1.3 billion Muslims in the world. According to the FBI, between 1980-2005, 94% of terrorist attacks in US were committed by NON-MUSLIMS (Source). During that same time period there were more Jewish terror attacks then Muslim terror attacks. Why don’t we ban all the Jews from coming into the country? Nazi Germany anyone? The reason these facts elude us is that most people get their information from the news. The news loves flaming our emotions and nothing gets us more scared or mad then the headline-RADICAL-ISIS-MUSLIM-TERRORIST KILLS AMERICANS!!! Since 9/11 less than 0.0002% of Americans were killed by Muslims (Source); you have a better chance of dying from your TV crushing you while watching FOX News. If we are going to group all Muslims with terrorists then we should group all Christians with members of the Westboro Baptist Church.

So what is the solution? I know that disenfranchising people and stereotyping whole religions will never bring about positive change. I know that jumping into policies based on emotions will never reap the desired results. I know that human nature is predictable and targeting people will make them more likely to fight back. Let’s take a lesson from our current involvement with fighting ISIS in Iraq and Syria. We are involving the Muslims in the area and empowering them to fight their enemy. The Kurds, Sunnis, and Shiites are all helping fight this terror group with US assistance. They are actually winning the battle and will have the proper infrastructure to fight ISIS in the future. Funny how partnering with Muslims is showing positive outcomes. Partnership is our only way of winning this war. ISIS wants us to fight them (see my previous posts below) and would love a hot head like Trump to be president. Trump would be there number one recruiting tool. Remember the past so we don’t have to repeat another Post 9/11 Potato Salad.

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria-Part 1 of 3

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria-Part 2 of 3

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria-Part 3 of 3

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria-Part 3 of 3

How can we defeat ISIS? With what we know about ISIS and their beliefs there are a few things that we should definitely not attempt. The biggest mistake the United States could do is to reoccupy Iraq/Syria with a large ground force. The invasion of Iraq in 2003 and subsequent occupation thereafter, was a well-spring for jihadists and terrorist attacks. Don’t repeat those mistakes again! Occupying Iraq would increase ISIS’s recruits and may even cause a new terrorist group to materialize. President Obama realizes this and has said that the proposed strategy to fight ISIS should entail increased air strikes, increased special force missions, and increased training for the Iraqi military. Remember, ISIS wants a US occupation in the Middle East because their apocalyptic prophecies predict battles in certain areas. A major strategy we should implement is facilitating the Muslim community to fight ISIS and its ideology. Let’s ask Muslim countries what they need from us instead of us telling them what to do. ISIS is not just a problem for the “West” but all of Islamdom because they want to create sectarian war and kill Muslims who do not believe their twisted theology. A second major strategy is to target ISIS’s means of sending propaganda through the internet. Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube should create algorithms and search mechanisms that flag all terrorist oriented information. These sites already do this with pornography and certain graphic material so it would be technological feasible.  Social media is closing ISIS accounts but I believe all media sources need to step up their monitoring. Through decreasing ISIS’s propaganda, there will be much fewer “lone wolves” who commit individual acts of terror.

These strategies are the immediate ways to fight ISIS but we need to think about the big picture. How is ISIS primarily funded? To put simply, they are funded by oil (which provides them with 1.5 million dollars a day) that is purchased by developed countries. Let’s cut off their funding by decreasing our dependence on oil. How can we do this? Increase subsidies for renewable energy and invest in American infrastructure like we did during the New Deal. Where are we going to get the money for that? Stop subsidizing coal and decrease our military budget (which is the largest in the world by far) since we don’t need to fund expensive ground invasions. If we do this, terrorist groups like ISIS will have far less money and be greatly handicapped in their organizational capabilities. With the funding taken away all ISIS would have left is their radical ideology. How can we prevent people from being radicalized? The best way to do this is by giving them jobs. A young man who believes he can provide for himself and his family will be much less likely to join a radical gang. ISIS’s main recruitment tool is the promise of a well-functioning society for all its members-complete with hospitals, entertainment, libraries, and “jobs.” Of course, to give people jobs there needs to be a non-corrupt government, outside investment, infrastructure, and many other complex variables. These things take time to develop but the US can assist with this through investment (private/public), education, and domestic polices that support income equality. Lastly, what can you do as an individual to fight ISIS? Educate yourself about ISIS, Islam, and the history of the Middle East. Study history and realize how many times we repeat the same mistakes. Don’t group all Muslims as terrorists and think they shouldn’t live in the US. Oddly enough, ignorance is the hotbed that fuels the misinformed policy’s of both ISIS and America-be different…use your brain.

 

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria-Part 2 of 3

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Zarqawi

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi

Baghdadi

What an exciting couple of days we have had since the first installment of this series. Donald Trump, on Monday, stated that all Muslims should be banned from entering the United States. This “strategy” is by no means new in American history: the 19th century saw bans against Chinese, during the Great Depression there were movements to suppress Jewish immigration, and most notably during WWII there was forced encampment of Japanese Americans. The US has had a long history of xenophobia and sadly their are still a large number of people who have these same feelings today. Trump’s statement is wrong on many levels but one of its biggest errors is the fact that ISIS (which profoundly motivated the statement) does not actually practice Islam. Almost all Muslim-theology scholars agree that ISIS’s ideology contradicts Islam in almost every way. To understand this, imagine the KKK (a “protestant” terrorist group) went over to the Middle East and committed acts of violence in the name of Christianity. The leader of the affected country would then condemn all Christians as violent-untrustworthy people and ban them from entrance into the country. This seems downright insane, but how is this scenario different then the one currently being trumpeted by Donald? The intricacies of Islam as a religion will be explored in future posts but for now let’s get back to ISIS.

We left off with Abu Bakr al Baghdadi becoming the second leader of the newly formed Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) in 2010. Baghdadi was said to be a quiet boy growing up and was quite scholarly-receiving a doctorate in Islamic culture and law.  This all radically changed when he became a jihadist after the Iraq invasion in 2003. Baghdadi would be shortly captured by Americans and put into a military controlled prison camp. These prisons mixed radical jihadists with minor offenders which created a ideal environment for recruitment. The US inadvertently spread terrorist ideology in these prisons and upon release, jihadists would be further glorified (similar to how gang members receive street cred after serving time). Baghdadi did his fair share of recruiting while imprisoned and when released, he was in prime position to take leadership of ISI in 2010. Shortly thereafter, Baghdadi began to attack military prisons which resulted in the escape of many jihadists who quickly pledged loyalty to ISI. During this same time, Baghdadi defied Al Queda and spread his terrorist group into war-torn Syria; hence the name known around the world was birthed, “The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS).”

ISIS was technically a branch of al Queda but Baghdadi would soon take on a whole new ideology of radicalization.  Baghdadi began to split from al Queda when he resumed Zarqawi’s mission of targeting Shiite Muslim with gruesome killings. Eventually, ISIS would declare themselves the “true” Islamic State and claim that all nations must bow to them-including al Queda. ISIS is attempting to bring about the end times by fulfilling several prophecies: certain manuscripts predicted that preceding the apocalypse their would be…sectarian war, slavery, a battle in Dabiq (a town that ISIS controls), and the eventual control of Constantinople (to list a few.) This apocalyptic mentality is critical to understand because it shapes ISIS’s gruesome behavior. Apocalyptic groups are not concerned with worldly matters or politics which makes it much easier for them to commit barbaric acts. “ISIS’s stated goal is to purify the world and create a new era, in which a more perfect version of Islam is accepted worldwide.” The interesting thing to know is that the Quran, the holy book of Islam, says very little about the end of times. To summarize, ISIS is extremely violent because they desire to “purify” the world and they want to create sectarian violence among Muslims because war between Sunnis and Shiites is predicted in the end of times. Again, these apocalyptic beliefs are not tenets of Islam but rather created by prior scholars in an attempt to rationalize negative circumstances of their time (many were written whenever a foreign power took control). ISIS wants the United States to fight them and occupy their territory because this is yet another prediction of the end of times. Knowing this, we will continue to part 3 to understand how ISIS is so effective at recruiting and what we need to do to prevent their advancement of terror.

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria-Part 1 of 3

ISIS is front and center in the news and the acronym itself is now synonymous with fear. This terrorist organization is extremely violent, radical, and is responsible for many recent attacks which resulted in a multitude of innocent deaths. Where did ISIS come from? What do they believe? Are they any different then previous terrorist groups? I wanted answers to these questions so I read ISIS: The State of Terror by Jessica Stern and J.M. Berger. This book was published prior to the Paris and San Bernardino attacks but it eerily predicted that events like those would occur. Let’s take a journey in time and look back at the birth and development of the worlds most famous terrorist group.

Our journey begins in 2003 when former President George W. Bush commanded the United States military to invade Iraq. Bush said “We’re taking the fight to the terrorists abroad, so we don’t have to face them here at home.” This statement proved to be half true-we brought the fight but instead of decreasing the number of terrorists, the invasion became a lighting rod for jihadists. Before the invasion, Jihadist’s had a difficult time operating in Iraq and were in severe decline after the destruction of al Qaeda’s primary base in Afghanistan. Jihadists used the American presence in Iraq as a recruiting tool and Abu Musab al Suri, the jihad’s most prominent strategist, said that the war in Iraq single-handedly saved the movement. Numbers wise, following the invasion, terrorism within Iraq rose exponentially; “There were 78 terrorist attacks in the first twelve months…in the second twelve months this number nearly quadrupled, to 302 attacks. At the height of the war, in 2007, terrorists claimed 5,425 civilian lives and caused 9,878 injuries.” The US occupation would also rekindle fighting between Sunni and Shiite Muslims (think different theological beliefs like Protestants and Catholics). This created a civil war and Abu Musab al-Zarqawi was a little known jihadist who would use this sectarian violence to his advantage. Zarqawi would found Al-Qa‘ida in Iraq (AQI) which was responsible for several attacks on Shiites and Iraqi civilians. Osama bin Laden would chastise Zarqawi for these attacks on fellow Muslims but Zarqawi believed in a very strict interpretation of Takfir. Takfir is the pronouncement of someone as a nonbeliever and gives jihadists the permission to kill subjects as apostate (no longer believers in Muslim). Zarqawi (who hated Shiites) believed that all Muslims which did not support his beliefs were fair game to kill. This radical ideology was beyond al Queda and even bin Laden thought it was crazy.

Zarqawi’s philosophy was influenced by a few key works. The Management of Savagery, which was created by the research and analysis division of al Queda, outlined stages of jihadist struggles: Disruption and Exhaustion (keep the US fighting to destroy its image of invisibility, Management of Savagery (carry out highly visible violence intended to send a message), and Empowerment (establish regions controlled by jihadists to re-create the caliphate). A Call to a Global Islamic Resistance, cited the need for leaderless resistance and effectiveness of lone wolf attacks. Furthermore, it extensively spoke about apocalyptic prophecies (many of which supported Shiite hatred), which needed to be fulfilled.  Zarqawi’s library was seriously twisted but his reign of terror would end in 2006 when the US killed him in a targeted airstrike. The Defense Department would soon post a picture of the Zarqawi’s corpse, which turned him into a martyr, and led the leader of al Queda to post a eulogy in which he encouraged the AQI to establish an Islamic state. Within a few months, a group of AQI insurgents announced the formation of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI). The new leader of the ISI was Abu Omar al Baghdadi who was eventually killed in 2010. Enter, Abu Bakr al Baghdadi, the second leader of ISI and the current leader of ISIS. Stay tuned for more on Baghdadi and the continuation of our fascinating story.

Thanksgiving and ISIS

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Happy Thanksgiving and I hope you all have recovered from your cornucopia of butter laden dishes. This year I cooked the Thanksgiving meal for my family-we all thoroughly enjoyed and needed to wear XL sweatpants after the feast. Christina, who weighs in at 100 pounds, didn’t stop eating for 36 hours and is currently experiencing after tastes of Pepto Bismol. Thanksgiving not only requires ridiculous amounts of food but also ridiculous amounts of humbleness. That humbleness is needed to appreciate all the blessings in our lives. Below I wanted to list 5 blessings that I am especially thankful for this year.

  1. I own a house and have a hammock witch I lay in every night when I read.
  2. Christina makes me laugh more then ever and I love the subtleties of her personality.
  3. My back, which I hurt last year from falling on ice, has finally healed.
  4. I have successfully blogged for a year and rediscovered my love for writing.
  5. My family is healthy as a whole.

I want to take this blog in new directions this coming year and I hope to incorporate more original posts which cover the mind, body, and spirit. Wisdom is the goal of my writing and I believe that true wisdom comes from a well-balanced life. With that said, future posts will be more diverse and encompass different dimensions of health: learning, fitness, relationships, spirituality, and food to list a few. Stay tuned and thank you for sticking with me. I am currently working on posts which touch on ISIS and Islam as a whole-in the hopes of understanding events that recently occurred in Paris. Give thanks this Thanksgiving and again I thank you for supporting my writing efforts.

-Jon