US Grant – America’s Unlikely Hero – Part 2

I want to give a shout out to one particular reader for sticking with me through all these Presidential posts. Thank you, Allie Nye, for your loyal following and steadfast interest in a subject I find extremely relevant. Last week I posted about Ulysses S. Grant and for some reason, not many people wanted to read about one of America’s most popular presidents. For those who did read part one – I’m sure you had a sleepless night anticipating the release of Part 2. To all my readers who are sick of dead white men, I assure you this is the last post for quite some time concerning the subject. Let’s get back to where we last left Grant – a downtrodden man with a smeared reputation trying to bake bread for the Union Army.

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Before Grant could put his first loaf of bread in the oven, he was given a new lease on life from a longtime friend – Congressman Elihu B. Washburne of Illinois. Thanks to Washburne – who was a close acquaintance to Lincoln – Grant moved up the military ladder from simple aid to Brigadier General of volunteers. This meteoric rise was partially due to Grant’s talent in organizing men and his tenacious leadership. The now military leader would go on to win the Union’s first major victory at Fort Donaldson and the bloodiest battle in American history up until that point – Shiloh.  Grant became a national figure after these two events and was admired by Lincoln as an “offensive” general not scared of his Confederate counterparts. This executive admiration was contrasted by cries from the press that Grant was a “Butcher” and a reckless campaigner. To worsen Grant’s image, there were reports of him getting drunk on regular occasions – these being half-truths and whole exaggerations.

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By the end of the war, Grant would have decisive victories in Vicksburg and Petersburg; all the while devastating the south through his command of Sheridan’s cavalry and Sherman’s March to the Sea. He was promoted to Lieutenant General – which was the highest rank in America only held once before by George Washington. His military power reached its zenith at Appomattox Courthouse where he forced the magnanimous surrender of Robert E. Lee – pardoning all Confederate soldiers and allowing them to go back home without further prosecution. Grant by far was the most responsible person for winning the Civil War: free of vanity, generous to friends,  and patriotic to the core.

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Grant’s accomplishments in the Civil War catapulted him into the national psyche – on a level equal to Abraham Lincoln. He immediately enforced Reconstruction and ordered troops into the south to protect the rights of the newly freed slaves. For the first time in history, blacks were able to vote and Grant was elected as President in a landslide victory at the young age of 46. He championed the enforcement of the 13th amendment and helped pass the 14th and 15th amendments which ensured equal citizenship and voting rights for former slaves. It was said that Lincoln was responsible for freeing the slaves but Grant was responsible for fostering their humanity. He formed the Justice Department to prosecute the newly formed and powerful terrorist organization – the Ku Klux Klan.  Grant promoted a record number of blacks to public office and freely welcomed black activists like Frederick Douglas into the White House. He helped found the first National Park at Yellowstone and pushed for public education like no other president before. His popularity was so great that he was elected to a second presidency and the famous feminist Susan B. Anthony campaigned in his name.  Grant won his second term and was the first two-term president since Andrew Jackson.

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Of course, Grant was not perfect and he had several problems in his cabinet from nepotism and trying to lead the country with a military mindset. Politics were not Grant’s forte and he didn’t know when to back down from a political fight – a trait that helped him on the battlefield but hurt him in Congress. He was loyal to friends to the point of foolishness and this burned him many times when uncovering corruption schemes. By the end of his second term, Reconstruction was a dead issue and he felt helpless in his ability to defend blacks – a moral fatigue inundated the north. Upon retiring from office, he went on a two-year world tour where he met the most famous leaders of the gilded age – from Queen Victoria of England to Emperor Meiji of Japan. He was pushed towards a third term as president but due to George Washinton’s tradition of two terms, he failed to achieve the nomination.

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The end of Grant’s life is a sad tale of betrayal and suffering. Shortly after reentering civilian life, Grant trusted his financial health to a supposed friend. This swindling Wall Street man stole all of Grant’s family and friends’ money through the use of a pyramid scheme. He was left penniless and only sustained himself through donations from admirers across the country. One day, Grant experienced a sharp pain in his mouth – the annoyance was actually throat cancer. To prevent his family from complete poverty upon his death, Grant wrote a memoir that Mark Twain would go on to publish. He wrote his memoir in excruciating pain and barely finished it before dying in 1885 – his body only weighed 90 lbs from his inability to drink and eat. His memoir gained $450,000 dollars in royalties ($11,000,000 in today’s value) and his funeral in New York was attended by 1.5 million people – eulogized as a man equal to George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. He was a man of character and virtue who overcame his vices of drink and stood up for society’s downtrodden – making him one of my favorite presidents. Next time you have a $50 bill, use Grant’s face to go buy Ron Chernow’s book and some baked goods in commemoration.
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The General, The Tank, The William Tecumseh Sherman

After quite a long moving process, I am finally settled into my “Moby Dick” house and quite happy. The process of furnishing, organizing, and copious hours of cleaning left me without much time to read or write. Thankfully, the project is winding down and I have been masterfully avoiding my wife’s “To-Do” list that was placed on the refrigerator like a black spot of death. Tomorrow, I am going to a Civil War reenactment in celebration of the 150th anniversary since the bloody war ended at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9th, 1865. My high school education on the Civil War was quite shallow and I believe we spent about a week on the entire subject. Desiring to expand my knowledge before the reenactment, I checked out Fierce Patriot:The Tangled Lives of William Tecumseh Sherman by Robert L O’Connell. I picked this book up because the cover looked cool and I knew absolutely nothing about General Sherman and his role in the Civil War.

Sherman was a West Point graduate with fiery-red hair and a strong sense of pride in the ever expanding United States. He took many different jobs throughout the country and displayed a sense of desire for adventure and career advancement. When very young, his father died and was subsequently adopted by the wealthy Ohio senator-Thomas Ewing. He ended up marrying his foster sister Ellen Ewing but spent most the time away from her because she preferred being in Ohio with her father. Sherman was first appointed to colonel of the 13th U.S. Infantry regiment and with his brave performance at the First Battle of Bull Run was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers by Abraham Lincoln. After a nervous breakdown and a bout of mental illness while in Kentucky, Sherman was able to find his military-sweet spot working under Grant’s command in the battles of Shiloh, Vicksburg, Chattanooga, and Atlanta among others. Sherman is best known for his fierce psychological warfare against the south in his March to the Sea campaign. After burning most of Atlanta, Sherman marched through Georgia foraging, burning, and looting civilian property. This march culminated with the capture of Savannah, Georgia and Charleston, South Carolina-both capitols burned and ransacked to crush all confederate hopes. Sherman was a strategic genius and ushered in a new era of warfare in which civilian supporters were fair game in the hazards of war (think Hiroshima during WWII). Beyond just strategy, Sherman was a gregarious general who was given the nickname “Uncle Billy” because he was extremely approachable and friendly to all his soldiers. His later life was filled with a celebrity untainted by the smearing affects of politics (unlike the fate of Ulysses S. Grant) and a quite prominent career completing the transcontinental railroad.

Sherman by no means was not a perfect man: black equality was not a concern to him, he wanted all the buffalo extinct so that the Native Americans would be forced to move to reservations, and he had a fair share of affairs with various women. I admire Sherman in his career accomplishments more then his personal accomplishments. The man knew how to get the job done and was extremely confidant in himself while not being overly pretentious. Thankfully, he had a strong desire to keep the Union together because if he fought for the Confederacy the outcome of the Civil War may have been different; this being a strong possibility because he actually was the founder of a military school in Louisiana when the war first broke out. Sherman in the end helped shape the physical and ideological America we know today-uniting North, South, East, and West with an uncompromising vision of progress.