The Communist in All of Us

Sometimes I get embarrassed when I read certain books in public; one time while I was working at an Elementary school I was confronted by a little girl who asked the simple question – “Why are you reading?” That is a funny story, but I have also gotten unamusing looks from adults with titles like Pride and Prejudice (In a purple cover) and The Book of Mormon. Stares get even icier when I grow my beard out and my appearance resembles that of a homeless man. I just recently reached the epitome of glances with my newest classic – The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx. I was reading this scary-sounding book on a park bench one day – my beard looked like a birds nest, and I had my hair up in a man bun. Suffice it to say; mothers walked hurriedly past me and phones were being primed for an Amber Alert. Books are compelling and in the wrong hands can cause a lot of problems; imagine seeing someone reading The ISIS Manifesto: A Guide to Being a Lonewolf. That is why 70 years ago it was hard finding books on Communism and why many libraries blacklisted specific titles. I have mixed feelings about this, but I do believe that it is essential to understand the logic of extreme political thought.

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The Communist Manifesto was a political pamphlet published in 1848 by the German Philosophers Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels (credited for editing). Europe at the time was in a post-French Revolution reordering; class struggle was preeminent and capitalism was taking over the world. The life of a poor laborer consisted of arduous factory work – think of the desperation experienced during the Dust Bowl but tinged with aristocratic barriers. Marx desired to rally the working class against the bourgeoisie (middle to upper class) just like the bourgeoise assembled to fight the aristocracy during the French Revolution. Below is a list of the Communist Parties’ objectives.

  1. Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes.
  2. Heavy progressive or graduated tax.
  3. Abolition of all right of inheritance.
  4. Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels.
  5. Centralization of credit in the hands of the State, by means of a national bank with State capital and an exclusive monopoly. 
  6. Centralization of the means of communication and transport in the hands of the State.
  7. Extension of factories and instruments of production owned by the State; the bringing into cultivation of waste-lands, and the improvement of the soil generally in accordance with a common plan.
  8. Equal liability of all to labour. Establishment of industrial armies, especially for agriculture.
  9. Combination of agriculture with manufacturing industries; gradual abolition of the distinction between town and country, by a more equable distribution of the population over the country.

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As history has shown, Communism doesn’t work. The idea of “equality” is great but in the Soviet Union – as one example – there were just as many divisions in society – rich and poor, ruling class and working class. What I have taken away most from this book is the idea that we are all a little Communistic. We all think we are 100% right on certain occasions and we believe that our way is the right way – think Liberal and Conservative. In Communist countries, there is no party system – no room for opposing viewpoints – no way to balance out opponents. There are truths in this world and I am not arguing that everyone’s opinion is “correct;” my point is that no individual or group of individuals has all the answers. The Democratic Party and the Republican Party need each other – the extremes of each lead to Communism or Fascism. The flaw with Communism was not that it sought equality; its flaw was the belief that one viewpoint could obtain equality. When we listen to others and learn from the past, we realize that truth lies in the middle. Be wary of extremes and be wary of individuals that proclaim their way is the only way. Marx was a genius, but he forgot what happened to Robespierre in the French Revolution – both examples of government were far from the middle and ended in disaster. What do you think about extreme political beliefs? Do you tend to be in the middle or a staunch fan of one particular party? I would love your comments.

History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce.
 -Karl Marx

Heil Hitler: The Nazi’s Drug Addiction

Today, I saw the WWII movie Dunkirk directed by Christopher Nolan. It’s an exceptional movie, and I highly recommend it to anyone who wants to learn about one of the most important events in the war. What made this film exciting for me was the knowledge that hard-core drugs made Dunkirk a possibility. Did you know that Hitler was a hardcore drug addict? Did you know the blitzkrieg was only possible because of meth? Did you know Nazis were given speed balls before kamikaze submarine missions? All of these questions are explained in the international bestseller Blitzed: Drugs in the Third Reich by Norman Ohler. I highly recommend this book because it completely changed my perspective on Nazi Germany. Up until this book, I saw the Nazis as superhuman- zealot nationalists who performed their tasks through the spirit of their beliefs; now I understand that their relentless drive came from drugs which kept them motivated, alert, and addicted to the war machine.

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In 1938, the German pharmaceutical company Temmler introduced Pervitin to the market. Pervitin was marketed as a magic medicine that provided energy, happiness, and the work ethic needed to expand the Third Reich. The magic of Pervitin lied in its main ingredient – methamphetamine aka Crystal Meth. This meth was available to all Germans and was given to soldiers in healthy doses during the blitzkrieg invasion of France. The blitzkrieg was only possible with Pervitin because the soldiers were able to go three days without sleep – the French soldiers couldn’t comprehend the artificial stamina of their opponents. The German tanks kept rolling because of the drugged soldier’s synthetic feelings of invincibility, and they ended up surrounding the Allies like a boa constrictor. The only escape route available for over 300,000 Allies was the coastal city of Dunkirk, France.

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Hitler, early on in his power, suffered from a host of stomach ailments which were probably due to stress and his diet. He searched for a doctor to help him, but no expert could help his infirmities; there was one doctor however that tried a different approach – his name was Theodor Morell. Morell gave Hitler vitamin injections which helped Hitler’s stomach issues – these injections quickly secured him as the Fuhrer’s personal physician. At the time of Dunkirk, Hitler was being lifted up by these daily vitamin injections which propelled his ego and narcissism – he halted the blitzkrieg because he didn’t want the military acting without his orders – in the end allowing all the allies to escape. By 1941, Hitler was in need of stronger drugs; Morell began a regimen of vitamins, animal hormones (Hitler was a strict vegetarian), and Eukodal. Eukodal is better known today as oxycodone – the fraternal twin to heroin.

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It didn’t take long before Hitler was addicted to these injections and by 1943 he was receiving even more drugs several times a day – high-grade cocaine, morphine, testosterone, and meth. Most of the high ranking Nazi staff were receiving similar injections from Morell while statewide propaganda ironically decried the drugs as “Jewish” poison not fit for the Aryan race. By the time of Hitler’s suicide in 1945, Morell had injected the “role model of Nazi health” over 800 times with 74 different substances. In the last years of his life, Hitler was receiving so many injections that he had track marks running up and down his veins. It was said that when Hitler received his injections, a cracking noise could be heard from his damaged vasculature and his blood oozed like gelatin because of its continuous exposure to animal hormones.

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The German army as a whole continued to receive state sanctioned meth throughout the war. The Third Reich would eventually experiment with cocaine and heroine – soldiers were given combinations of these three drugs to keep them fighting even when faced with utter defeat. Drugs were a tool for the Nazis and helped them accomplish superhuman tasks like the blitzkrieg, but in the end, both leaders and soldiers became burned out by their fleeting effects. Hitler was fueled by drugs, but drugs did not lead to the events of the Holocaust. Hitler’s hatred of the Jews began long before his first injection – as a healthy young man he dreamed of their extermination. The drugs hurt the Nazis more than anything. If Hitler weren’t addicted to drugs, he would have made less poor military decisions and prolonged the war – allowing greater time to kill victims in the concentration camps. Drugs in the Third Reich provided the energy for terror at the beginning of the fight but not the stamina needed for marathon fighting – oddly enough,  Morell was the Allies best weapon. 

“Hitler would go as white as a sheet and tightly clench his jaws, while his eyes would dilate. Everyone in his entourage would get panicky because these fits were always followed by an order to dismiss or to execute somebody.”
-Theodor Morell

The Christian Church and Jewish Hatred

Take this short history quiz.

  1. In what year did the first laws pass that required Jews to wear a special form of dress (making them identifiable in public), banned Jews from public office, forbade Jews from going out during Holy Week, and required Jews to pay a “Jew Tax?”

    A. 1933
    B. 1936
    C. 1215
    D. 1709

  2. Who was the first leader that actively forced Jews to live in a walled off “Ghetto?”

    A. Adolf Hitler
    B. Constantine
    C. Pope Paul IV
    D. Mussolini

  3. Who was the famous author of  The Jews and Their Lies

    A. Adolf Hitler
    B. Henry VIII
    C. Heinrich Himmler
    D. Martin Luther

  4. Name the famous person who said this quote: “By defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord.”

    A. Pope John
    B. Martin Luther
    C. Adolf Hitler
    D. Jesus

1. The answer is C. 1215. This was the year Innocent III, the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, convened the Fourth Lateran Council which wrote the aforementioned laws into Constitution 68 of the church.

2. The answer is C. Pope Paul IV. In addition to walling off all the Jews in Rome, only a mile from the Vatican, this Pope forcefully took Jewish babies for baptism, required Jews to kiss the ground where he had just stepped, and required Jewish men to wear yellow conical hats.

3. The answer is D. Martin Luther. The man who started the Protestant Reformation in 1517 wrote this 65,000 word book in 1543. He described the Jews as poisonous worms who should be put into forced labor, expelled for all time, and slain as a despicable group of people.

4. The answer is C. Adolf Hitler. Hitler wrote this in his autobiography Mein Kampf. This quote has roots in the biblical interpretation of Romans 11:25, “I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, so that you may not be conceited: Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in…” Medieval Christians used this verse as rationale to forcefully convert and persecute Jews throughout the 1st/2nd Millennium so that the end of times could begin and the Messiah could come again.

Did this quiz surprise you? I had no idea of the Catholic and Protestant Church’s history of antisemitism until I read Constantine’s Sword: The Church and the Jews by James Carroll. This is a monster book that won the National Book Award and took me three weeks to read. The whole book details the church’s views on antisemitism and how it nurtured the environment which allowed Hitler to slaughter 11 million Jews. This atrocious act was done without any major protest from the vast Christian population in Germany. Essentially, the church turned on the gas and Hitler was the one who lit the match-Christians didn’t directly kill 11 million Jews but they were responsible for the antisemitic environment that inundated the church and shaped many of Hitler’s beliefs. Hitler was a baptized Roman Catholic that was obviously off his rocker and took antisemitic views to a whole new level. But Hitler was not raised in a vacuum. The quiz I listed above highlights only a few incidences of Jewish hatred by the Christian church that occurred before Hitler’s time. During the first crusade, thousands of Jews were killed by righteous Christians on their way to Israel. During the Spanish Inquisition, Jews were tortured and many times killed for not converting to Christianity. During the Black Plague, Jews were blamed for the 25 million deaths because people believed they were poisoning wells. During the 13th/14th centuries in Italy and France there were mass public bonfires of confiscated Talmuds-one of the Jewish holy books.

The extent of the hatred towards Judaism is somewhat staggering and the next question you probably have is why all the hatred in the first place? This requires a extremely long answer that is best understood by reading Constantine’s Sword. To briefly explain it we have to go all the way back to the time of Jesus. Jesus was a Jew but this was soon forgotten by early Christians who saw Jesus as an outsider who was then crucified by the Jews. Concurrently,  Judas, the disciple who betrayed Jesus, framed many Christian’s views of Jews-betrayers, money obsessed, weak, sinister, etc. Added to this negative image was the fact that Jews rejected Christianity’s main belief-Jesus as the Messiah. Hence there was resentment from Christians towards “stubborn” Jews which eventually evolved into conspiracy theories, restrictive laws, and the mentality that Christians should not allow Jews to thrive because of their obstinate beliefs. Multiply all these views by 1900 years and you have Hitler officially being supported by the Catholic Church. In 1933, the Christians of Europe and America knew about Hitler’s antisemitism. Why didn’t they protest? Some did but the majority remained silent. This is because the antisemitism, by that point in time, was an established, almost commonplace belief system. I am not saying that the church supported the killings of 11 million Jews, but they did allow Hitler to continually worsen his antisemitic policies for almost 10 years.

I am a Christian. I know the Church does many amazing things. However, I know the Church is not perfect because it is made by man. I write about these things because we must recognize the sins of the past to prevent similar atrocities in the future. Today we have many Christians who view Muslims negatively. They view Muslims as backward unbelievers who are unloving and misguided-all the while questioning how a “peaceful” religion can motivate its followers to kill. Does any of this sound familiar?

 

The Nazi Bible

Did Hitler one day just wake up with the revelation, “I don’t like Jews and I like blond-haired-blue-eyed people!” Of course this is not how Hitler came to some of his beliefs but what did shape his beliefs and those of the Nazi party? This question was answered in A Most Dangerous Book: Tacitus’s Germania from the Roman Empire to the Third Reich by Christopher B. Krebs. Enter Cornelius Tacitus. Tacitus was a Roman senator and historian who lived between 56 to 117 AD. He was quite a famous writer during his time and is most known for writing the Annals and the Histories which cover the reigns of certain Roman Emperors. Tacitus also wrote the Germania in 98 AD which described the Germanen people who lived in the northern unconquered areas of present day Germany, Poland, Denmark, Czech Republic, and a few Scandinavian countries. The people that lived in these areas during the days of Tacitus were a hodgepodge of barbaric tribes which were not united and fought each other regularly. In the Germania, the land and the customs of the various tribes are described: a people that were unmixed with other races who had fierce blue eyes, tawny red hair, large frames, athletic builds, strong work ethics, habitual drunkenness, and harsh punishments for breaking societal rules. Tacitus never went to visit these lands or tribes and received his information from literary sources and third-person accounts. By no means was the Germania meant to be an accurate historical account but rather a mosaic of political and moral underpinnings meant to send a message to the Roman people. The message was that the barbarians had certain traits which were lacking in Roman society (simplicity, bravery, and hospitality) and that the Germanen tribes were a discernible threat to the empire.

The Germania went into obscurity and was not rediscovered until 1421. The accidental unearthing of this document by post-medieval humanists couldn’t have come at a better time. In the 1500’s, Germany was not a country and the people living in the area did not have a strong understanding of their history, language, or culture. Scholars clung to the Germania as true “German” history and took it as proof that they descended from a  pure, hardy, and moral stock. For the next two centuries, the Germania was sorely misinterpreted to show that Germany actually was the birth of republic government, culture, and the human race. In the 1800’s, with increases in scientific understanding, the Germania was interpreted to show the Germans to be biologically superior through racial purity-further uplifting the Nordic/Aryan image. During this time, students and the middle-class were able to read publications that used excerpts from the Germania to push for German nationalism and moral rectitude (Germany became an independent country in 1871).  Picking up steam in the 1900’s, the Völkisch movement (similar to the Populist movement in America) was a set of beliefs that used the Germania to argue that Germany had to return to its past when there were no demoralized cities and the virtues of the farmer were held to the highest regard; the profession of farming represented purity and this further stemmed the belief that Aryans were the pure race. Antisemitism has roots in this movement because the Jews were foreigners tainting the German race and they many times had communities in cities where they worked in business.

The Germania directly influenced philosophical ideals in Hitler’s autobiography Mein Kampf. Furthermore, Hitler’s top SS commander, Heinrich Himmler, was obsessed with the Germania and pushed the idea of racial purity much more then any other Nazi member. Himmler was extremely influential in the implementation of the Holocaust and made sure the Hitler Youth received twisted education on the Germania. If the Nazi party had a bible I would say the Germania would be the number one candidate. It is now clear to see how just one book can influence people in a very dangerous way. The Germania was misinterpreted throughout the ages to suit the desires of the readers. When not critically analyzed and put into historical context, all books lose their original meanings. Education is powerful and if this one book was never written would World War II have ever occurred? Interesting to think about and it makes me wonder if there is a book out there that could repeat this warped ideology in the future.

Bringing a Gun to a Fist Fight

Last year marked the 100th anniversary of World War I. This war is looked over in history class and most people only know about it after seeing the movie War Horse. I finished an extremely arduous book, The Fourth Horsemen: One Man’s Secret Campaign to Fight the Great War in America by Robert Koenig, which details the German sabotage that took place during WWI. More specifically, it follows the life of Anton Dilger, a German physician originally born in America, who took up biological warfare against horses during the war. He was hired by Germany to grow anthrax and other bacteria to infect horses being bred in America for use by the Allies. This was quite an undertaking because he set up his own germ factory in the basement of a Washington D.C. house. The germs were bottled and given to paid saboteurs who spread them among war horses. They did this by putting germs in the food, water, noses, or blood stream (through injection) of the innocent animals. The hope was that the germs would spread throughout the congregated horses and cause mass death. The success of this sabotage is not completely understood but it is known that thousands on horses did die from disease during the war. Anton would eventually move to Spain to continue his sabotage but died ironically in 1918 from the Spanish Flu.

WWI is a war that stood at the intersection of 19th and 20th century technology. At the beginning of the war, horse cavalries were still used and many were massacred by the newly invented machine gun. I think every little boy has watched a movie of the American Revolution and thought, “…man if only I could go back in time and give them a machine gun or a plane!” That is pretty much how WWI was fought in its very first months. Additionally, animals like horses, mules, pigeons, elephants, and dogs were used regularly in battles to move clunky machinery or relay messages. The tank, airplane, and automobile were relatively new in 1914, so animals were still valuable because they provided more reliability and functionality. Chemical warfare was also in its infancy and many times allies would release toxic gas only to have the wind blow it right back in their faces. Germ theory only came about in the mid 1800’s and WWI was the first time that germs were grown for biological warfare. We should study WWI for its insights on how to prevent the misuse of technology. What technology will the wars of the future hold? We are in yet another transition of technology from human-controlled weapons to robotic-controlled weapons. Will artificial intelligence read up on WWI and see the advantages it has over us-think Terminator? I will continue to learn more about WWI because it was a war that not only helps me understand the 20th century but also the future of this century.  

What do you know about WWI? What can we learn from war that can prevent future wars? What is your favorite war to learn about?