Partition – Is It Ever A Good Thing?

I live in the United States of America and I am very proud of its melting pot of culture, religion, ethnicity, and political beliefs. In respects to religion, I am a Christian sharing this great land of freedom with Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists, and Scientologists – among many others. In general, people get along in America counter to what people see on the news and social media – the fact that it is “news” gives you a marker for context. This cohesion is in large part due to economic, social, and geographical cooperation. The fact that all 50 states have relatively fluid borders – sorry Hawaii – allows people to interact and form connections; connections which provide the zest to America’s delicious stew. Not everyone agrees with me on these points and some desire to split away from the red, white, and blue; nearly every election, there is a call for Texas, Northern California, Southern California, Florida, the south, or the north to form their own country. Today, around the world, there are serious calls for partition. To better understand this history of division, I read about one of the most contentious partitions in history – the separation of Palestine and Isreal – in the book O, Jerusalem! By Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre.   

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The partition of Palestine occurred after WWII and was caused by several concurrent events: A British desire to withdraw from the region because of increased retaliation from both Jews and Arabs; reparations for Holocaust victims and Jewish refugees who had no place to go; an increased nationalist movement by Zionists; and the West’s desire to keep communism from gaining a foothold. The United Nations voted to partition the region in 1947 and on May 14th, 1948, the state of Israel became official. Partition began a war that still rages today between Arabs and Jews – the first year of conflict claimed the lives of thousands of men, women, and children. Between 1947 to 1967, the Arabs had the upper hand on the Jews with their control of Jerusalem and major trading settlements. The Jews flipped the table in the War of 1967, and since then they have been slowly suffocating the Palestinians. Today, the state of Israel, with the backing of America, maintains dominance in the region. That dominance results in the persecution of Palestinians and continued hatred between the two groups.

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My question is this – Why was Palestine partitioned in the first place? Why couldn’t the region be one cohesive state with multiple religions like America? Maybe a better question…Why does America support the current state of separation when it goes completely counter to her own beliefs? Another example of the disaster of partition is the formation of Pakistan and India in 1947 which resulted in the death of 600,000 people and today is one of the most dangerous borders in the world. On paper, partition seems like a great idea; divide people based on their differences and then each state will have cohesiveness. The problem is that we don’t live in a bubble and arbitrary borders don’t mean much in real life. When a partition occurs, it is impossible to expel all members of a religion or ethnicity – there will be Jews in Palestine, Arabs in Israel, Hindus in Pakistan, and Muslims in India. The result is an obvious division between states and greater conflict within countries because the “unwanted” groups are seen as “internal outsiders” – separate in identity and a matchbox for intra-neighborhood conflict.

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So is partition ever a good thing? I think not. I think the state can unify people under a common banner of religion, ethnicity, and culture. I am a white-Christian-male, but that doesn’t mean I should have my own country. I am an American and that means that I share a connection with all Americans. The key is a balance between the two extremes; we can respect differences while maintaining a collective identity. So what is the solution to the problems in Palestine and India? To start with, we need to be good role models of statehood – let’s show the world what it looks like to be unique and united at the same time. One of my favorite leaders is Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. He didn’t push for a separate black nation but pushed for a united America behind a universal belief – the belief that all men are created equal. Is this an easy thing to do? Heck No. Is this something that can work? Heck Yes. Change is slow, but that doesn’t mean it’s impossible. What’s impossible is unification through division.

 

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It’s Finally Here

I must admit that I titled this post vaguely to get more views. Teddy is not here yet, but Christina is having contractions – as of last Thursday, she was 2 centimeters dilated. Today I am excited to announce the publication of Tackle the Library – Indian Independence. This is my third book in the series and by far the best one yet. The description is below…

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August 15th, 1947 marked the first day of independence for one-fifth of the world’s population. Independence from Britain in India and Pakistan directly impacted the lives of 400 million people – but that freedom morphed into migration, murder, and mayhem. This historic event is presented for the first time from beginning to end. Starting in ancient India and ending in our current times – Indian Independence is given its due breadth and required context that is often missing in previous works. Topics include:

• India before the British
• The British expansion into India
• The 1857 Rebellion
• Gandhi, Jinnah, Nehru, and Mountbatten
• British Racialism
• The Rise of Hindu Nationalism
• The Cause of the Hindu-Muslim Divide
• The Impact of Partition
• Maps Illustrating the Changing Face of India over Three Centuries

The Tackle the Library series (previous topics include Plato and The French Revolution) takes the top five books on a subject and turns them into a cohesive story that is not only interesting to read but highly informative. These are concise artisanal books served in small batches and written by yours truly – not a third party ghostwriter. No other book explains so much while remaining something you can read in a single weekend. So stop staring at that dusty shelf of textbooks in the library and crack open a book that will feed your curiosity.

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I am offering a free download to all my readers today and tomorrow (you can click on any of the hyperlinks to reach the site). Please check it out and leave a review. I also wanted to thank all my readers for supporting me throughout 2018. Posts will resume on a weekly basis in 2019, and I will be publishing my first ever novel in March – American Chestnut. The fourth installment of Tackle the Library is already underway, and by June you will get to read about Aristotle. Let’s raise a glass to the new year and my future son. Thank you again for reading and joining me on this journey of wisdom.

James Madison vs. Donald Trump

How would you rate Trump in his presidency? I don’t watch the daily news, but I do hear about the significant events through the grapevine; the most recent “Shit Hole” remark is not entirely surprising and falls in line with Trump’s previous propensity to say unpresidential remarks. But what does it mean to be “presidential?” Since I am fully immersed in Plato right now, my brain is constantly scanning for the root definitions of words. According to Plato, to be “presidential” would require one to be a “statesman” – a position of power which disseminates the knowledge of the “good.” What is the knowledge of the “good?” In a sense, it is the correct understanding of human morality and virtues.

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The question, however, gets more complicated because Plato argues we can never entirely obtain knowledge of the “good;” we have to try our best to seek out knowledge throughout our lives through dialogue and personal revelation. So does Trump seem to be on a lifelong journey of wisdom? To follow Socrates example, we’ll leave that question unanswered. Another component of understanding true “statesmanship,”  is to understand past examples in history. How can people honestly know what a good President looks like if their only comparisons are those of living memory: Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George Bush Sr, Ronald Reagan, etc. To further add to the conundrum, how many of these Presidents have been personally studied – what do you actually know about their intrinsic virtues and morals? In an attempt to get to the base of understanding “good” leadership, I am reading all the United State President’s biographies. My most recent is on James Madison – James Madison: A Life Reconsidered by Lynne Cheney. Next week I will post on James Monroe.

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James Madison was born on March 16th, 1751 to the Virginian planter class. He grew up accustomed to slavery and didn’t do much to further its abolition – less than George Washington and John Adams. Madison suffered from epilepsy at a time when epilepsy was thought to be a personal weakness, and he was a frail man in general – barely breaking the 5-foot barrier. Because of his health conditions, he took to erudition and became a prominent Virginian politician after attending modern-day Princeton. He was mentored by Thomas Jefferson and was close to leading figures of the Revolutionary War.

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Madison championed religious freedoms in the Virginian Constitution and cherished Enlightenment ideas. He was the father of the United States Constitution which was his political Magnum Opus. To push ratification of the Constitution, he partnered with opposite party member – Alexander Hamilton – to publish the famed The Federalist Papers.  Madison straddled party lines for the sake of his country and in the end, helped America form a stable central government while maintaining individual freedoms through the Bill of Rights. He would go on to serve in Congress, as Secretary of State, and as the 4th President of the United States.

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Madison was by far a not a perfect President and did not make satisfying decisions with respects to the War of 1812. His leadership skills were weak when it came to acts of force, and he had difficulties inspiring fellow cabinet members. By the end of his presidency, his successor James Monroe was practically running the government in his place. Madison’s gifts were behind the scenes, and he is most responsible for the United States withholding the Constitution we hold dear today. A Constitution which he designed to be changed according to ultimate liberties – the abolition of slavery to name one. Without Madison, the United States would never have had a Government which could defend itself from foreign attack while simultaneously preserving the rights of individual citizens.

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While in office, Madison had many opponents and is actually credited with forming the first political party with Jefferson. He was a scholar who believed in himself even though many people pushed him to the side because of his physical impediments. Was Madison “Presidential?” He is by far not the best President I have read about, but I do appreciate his quest for compromise and his pursuit of genuine liberty – a liberty that had to balance between the British Monarchy and French Jacobins. His virtues seem to be cooperation, determination, flexibility, and idealism. So how does Madison compare to Tump? I’m going to pull a Socrates again and let you ponder that question.

America’s Jello War

Have you ever made Jello? The process is pretty simple: mix jello packet with water, place in molds, let set. The setting process is critical – if you jump for the treat too soon it will lack any firmness and wiggle; you’ll basically bite into thick fruit punch. Jello is an excellent metaphor for America during the first years of its nationhood. After the end of the Revolutionary War in 1783, America was far from the firm consistency of Jello; there were many forces which wanted to prevent the setting process.

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Domestic and international threats were constantly trying to undermine the Constitution and the office of the presidency. Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of the Treasury, was a famous advocate for a hybrid-monarchy and wanted America to mirror components of British government. On the other hand, Thomas Jefferson was constantly paranoid that a King would take over the states or that the New England colonies would secede to the Brits. We look back at those years with 20/20 hindsight but people were freaking out about the state of their “Jello-Nation.” So when did the Jello finally set?

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The United States really didn’t become a unified nation until the War of 1812 – America’s Jello War; the War of 1812 is always skimmed over in History Class but it was the war that gave America its familiar consistency. To learn more about this important-congealing period, I read 1812: The War That Forged a Nation by Walter R. Borneman.

In the years that led up to 1812, America was in a constant struggle with Britain over their policy of “Impressment.” Impressment was the policy of British ships stopping vessels at sea in order to search them for British citizens – the captured Brits would be forced into military service. America didn’t like being pushed around on the seas and especially didn’t like when American citizens were unjustly impressed to serve the Royal Navy – more than 10,000 by 1812. Added to these grievances, the British restricted international trade as a way to counter Napoleonic France – this was ruinous for American exports.

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The seas were foaming with anger between the two countries but the problems also extended to the terra firma. America was trying to expand westward but the British were slow to exit forts which were lost during the American Revolution and were quick to help Native Americans fight for contested territory. These territory disputes were constant and many westerners were salivating for more land – Canada looked like a low hanging fruit. Everything came to a head in 1812 after impressment searches led to American vessels being militarily attacked – James Madison reluctantly declared war on Great Britain.

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The war was fought on land and sea. Battles took place along Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, the Saint Lawrence River, the Atlantic Coast, the Gulf Coast, and the western frontier. Many battles were small skirmishes that pitted a weak American militia against a veteran British regiment; Native Americans many times joined the British or fought on their own. By the end of the war America had 35,000 troops compared to nearly 50,000 British troops with casualties of 2,200 and 1,100 respectively.  At the beginning of the war, many thought it would be simple to annex Canada, but after several failed attempts the American forces realized it would be much more difficult. The Americans and British kept swapping victories and the war seemed to be at a permanent stand still – the Americans were unorganized and the British were under resourced due to concurrent wars in Europe.

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James Madison had in theory the power of a united nation but in reality was a bystander to a conglomerate of individual states. Men were hard to recruit and funds were no where to be found – hence, the fighting kept puttering along with each nation only putting a toe into the cold water of  war. It all came to a head with the Battle of Baltimore in 1814 which saw for the first time support for the War by the New England states. This victory ended any thought of the British increasing their fleets in the Atlantic and became a rallying cry for the entire nation – Francis Scott Key would write the Star-Spangled Banner during the battle.

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A peace treaty was soon signed and America was reborn in the eyes of the world as a “real” nation that could hold its own. The War of 1812 birthed the national careers of two future presidents: William Henry Harrison and Andrew Jackson. It stopped any talk of New England succession, led the way for the Monroe Doctrine, expedited westward expansion, increased federal power, and was the catalyst for the future sale of Alaska from Russia. After the War of 1812, the Jello Nation was set and molded. Or in the words of the then Secretary of the Treasury, Albert Gallatin, to Thomas Jefferson…

“The people now have more general objects of attachment with which their pride and political opinions are connected. They are more American; they feel and act more as a nation and I hope that the permanency of the Union is thereby secured.”

 

America’s First Father-Celebrity-President-Extraordinar

-“Alright class can someone tell me who the first president was?”

-Martin Luther King!…

-“No, children, Martin Luther King freed the slaves. Our first president was George Washington. Mr. Washington is the president on the one dollar bill and he cut down a cherry tree with his wooden teeth. That’s all for history, lets move on to finishing your paper machete projects of Kim Kardashian.”

This dialogue, albeit a joke, is close to the extent kids are taught about George Washington and history in general. In honor of President’s Day tomorrow, and my insatiable desire to build upon my poor-formal education, I decided to read Washinton: A Life by Ron Chernow. George Washington was raised by his widowed mother who was very strict and spartan-like. His mother was hypercritical and was probably the main source of Washington’s stoic personality that was prone to intermittent displays of anger. By age 20 he had inherited 2,315 acres and countless slaves after the death of his older brother. His quick rise to prosperity on the back of family deaths propelled him into the upper society of Virginian planters. This pseudo-aristocracy allowed him to meet the right people which lead to a recommendation for military-leadership in the French and Indian War (1754-1763). Washington would be commended for his courage and valor in combat; in one battle he had four bullets go through his jacket and two horses shot from beneath him-all while recovering from a severe bout of hemorrhoids brought upon by dysentery. It seemed Washington was never fazed by the possibility of death and was protected by divine providence. Overall, his tour in the French and Indian War was short lived and he began to experience the inequalities laid upon colonists by the British. He was not given an equal rank or pay compared to his “purebred” compatriots across the Atlantic. Following his duty in the war, he married the widow Martha Custis and inherited even more property. This windfall of new wealth is what allowed him the flexibility and social rank needed in part to become the Commander of the Continental Army.

In subsequent years, animosity towards the British began to grow in Washington for many reasons: British restriction of claiming land past the Allegheny mountains, unfair taxes, and lack of political power held by the colonists. The 2nd continental congress made George Washington the Commander of the Army due to his experience in the French and Indian War, aura of leadership, and aforementioned connections with southern society. The Continental Army was a ragtag group of civilians who had limited weapons, food, clothing, and especially military experience. Washington was not a military genius but his strengths lied in planning, communicating, and building an effective leadership team. He would have many blunders in military strategy and had just as many defeats as victories in the war. Actually, during most of the war his army in the northern colonies saw far less action compared to the southern theater. Primarily, during the revolution, he had to endure countless winters of begging a weak congress to provide money for his starving, sick, unclothed, and haggard soldiers-creating his future political desire for a strong central government. Thanks to the French, the Battle of Yorktown was the defining end to the war and would concrete George Washington’s national celebrity.

Washington wanted to retire from the public life but he reluctantly became the first president and subsequently the Father of the United States. While president he …”restored American credit and assumed state debt; introduced the first accounting tax, and budgetary procedures; maintained peace at home and abroad; inaugurated a navy, bolstered the army, and shored up coastal defenses and infrastructures; proved that the country could regulate commerce and negotiate binding treaties; protected frontier settlers, subdued Indian uprisings, and established law and order amid rebellion, scrupulously adhering all the while to the letter of the constitution (pg 770 para 4).”  Holy Crap! George Washington was the only president unanimously voted into office and without his leadership, patience, and desire to always to be a gentlemen (even against his foes) the United States may never have matured past its republican infancy. In the end, I appreciate my country more then ever and how far we have come because of the sacrifices of our forefathers. This President’s Day read a biography of one of our past leaders-the knowledge gleaned will give you beneficial wisdom now and into the future.

“We should not look back unless it is to derive useful lessons from past errors, and for the purpose of profiting by dearly bought experience.”

-George Washington