Herbert Hoover-Give the Guy a Break

Mellon pulled the whistle,
Hoover rang the bell,
Wall Street gave the signal,
And the country went to hell.

I went to the library last week and picked up a bunch of exciting books; one of the most riveting in my selection was Herbert Hoover in the White House: the Ordeal of the Presidency by Charles Rappleye. I didn’t know much about Herbert Hoover besides the Hoover Dam being named after him and Christina knew even less – asking whether he was the Hoover vacuum guy. I think the average citizen would be on par with my wife and maybe the rare few would remember he was a crappy president during the start of the Great Depression. To my surprise, Hoover was a very complex man who tried his best – with the tools he had – to fight a perfect storm of economic collapse.

This election year has a few similarities with the election of Hoover in 1928. Hoover was a political outsider who had never been elected to an office (that’s where the similarity ends). After eight years of the roaring twenties, the country was ready to sober up and elect a non-conventional candidate who had avoided political scandals in the past and could keep the economy humming along. Hoover gained his popularity through his effective work as a humanitarian in Europe during WWI and his domestic relief programs after natural disasters. He was so popular in 1920 that both parties brought his name up as a nominee for president. When he did get nominated on the Republican ticket in 1928, he barely campaigned and won by a landslide over his democratic opponent.

All was going well for Hoover in the first few months of his presidency until the greatest stock market crash in history, Black Tuesday, sent the country into an economic-downward spiral. The interesting thing about the Great Depression is that during the first year after the crash, a large majority of people didn’t think the economy was in that bad of shape. Hoover downplayed the hardships of the people because he wanted to reverse any pessimistic attitudes about the economy – which could cause even more panic. Added to this, Hoover lacked empathy for the downtrodden because he was a poor orphan who lived in complete poverty as a child; with this background he compared his upward mobility with the potential of all men.

As the country came to grips with its economic situation, Hoover began to enlist the help of private institutions like the Red Cross to provide aid. Hoover, like most presidents before him, believed the government should not dole out money for things like hunger or poverty; those services were historically always covered by private institutions. This mentality framed his strategy for lifting up the American citizen by limiting direct welfare subsistence and instead using government funds to help lift up the major pillars of the economy – businesses and banks. The Great Depression saw a record number of bank closures which strapped credit, froze assets, and dramatically slowed business growth. To reverse these developments, Hoover created government loans to get the banks back on their feet (similar, but much smaller, to the bailouts in 2008). This made sense economically but it was a PR nightmare for Hoover because it looked like he cared only for the rich.

Added to this image was the fact that Hoover hated the press and in turn he isolated himself from the public. He appeared cold, stern, unsympathetic, and harsh to the average American during a time when a charismatic leader was needed to reassure the suffering public. His policies were extremely conservative and his vice grip on the gold standard helped to prolong the Great Depression. Hoover was in the crosshairs of an old and new government – one in the past that had limited influence, due to the size of the population and economy, now needed to step in and fill the holes that private institutions could no longer fill. Hoover did his best with the tools that he had. He had the work ethic but could only get so far with a wooden hammer when he really needed a jack hammer. Yes, his style of isolated-cold leadership was not helpful in the crises. But I don’t believe any man at that time in history could have done much better with the economy. I see Hoover as a president who came into office either 4 years too early or 4 years too late. Hoover was too conservative and too detached of a leader but he was never a president who didn’t try or didn’t care about the greater good of the people or the country as a whole.

The Asthmatic Boy who Became the Unstoppable Man Part 3

I am a part of everything that I have read.
-Theodore Roosevelt

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I finally finished Edmund Morris’ three part biography of Theodore Roosevelt! Last week was a tribute to Teddy’s many accomplishments throughout his life and I have written two previous posts about his early life (Part 1) and his presidency (Part 2). The last book in Morris’ series is called Colonel Roosevelt and it profiles Roosevelt’s post presidency life until his death. Reading about Teddy in his later life made me both happy and sad because he tried to do great things but were often stopped by forces beyond his control. After his grand tour of Africa and Europe, Roosevelt came back to America with intentions of writing and staying out of politics. These plans were quickly abandoned because the sitting president, William Howard Taft, was doing little to push Roosevelt’s square deal (conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, consumer protection) and prevent political corruption. The people wanted Roosevelt to run for president in 1912 but the party wanted Taft. Roosevelt fought for primaries that were decided by the popular vote (how modern day nominations work) instead of selection of candidates by party leaders. Roosevelt and Taft were essentially tied for the nomination at the Republican National Convention but the old Republican guard disliked his progressive policies. Taft received the nomination but Roosevelt decided to form the Progressive Party and run against Taft (Republican), Woodrow Wilson (Democrat), and Eugene Debs (Socialist).

The Progressive Party ran on a platform that most of us would think were commonsense policies, but at the time they were extremely radical. Roosevelt toured the country speaking to over a million Americans about the tenets of his newly formed party:

-Complete and effective publicity of corporate affairs
-Laws prohibiting the use of corporate funds directly or indirectly for political purposes
-Executives and board members of corporations should be held responsible for wrongdoings
-Promote conservation of natural resources
-Promote national security
-Graduated Income Tax
-Inheritance Taxes on big fortunes
-A judiciary accountable to changing social and economic conditions
-Comprehensive workmen’s compensation acts
-National laws to regulate the labor of children and women
-Higher safety and sanitary standards in the workplace
-Public scrutiny of all political campaign spending

Unfortunately, Roosevelt lost to Woodrow Wilson but he did beat Taft in electoral and popular votes. Roosevelt’s campaign did however alter the progressive policies of the two major parties-many of which would be enacted 25 years later by his fifth-cousin Franklin D. Roosevelt.

After the election, Roosevelt became a little disillusioned by politics and began to write for magazines and conduct speaking events. In 1914, WWI broke out and Roosevelt soon put his heart into convincing Americans that they must arm themselves for national protection. After the Lusitania sunk, Roosevelt was furious that Wilson refused to enter the war and defend the Americans who were being mercilessly killed by the German U-Boats. Eventually, Wilson would be forced to enter the war and Roosevelt essentially begged the President to allow him to lead men into battle. The administration rejected this plea, and Roosevelt was forced to write about the war while his 4 sons went off to fight. At this point in his life, Roosevelt began to lose most of his health due to all his previous injuries: rheumatism and crippling asthma as a child, leg injury from a collision with a trolley car, a gun shot wound to the chest, malaria from the Spanish-American War, a near-death injury during a river expedition in the jungles of Brazil, and countless falls off his horse list a few. He became overweight from inactivity and depressed because he couldn’t fight physically or politically. His depression worsened when he heard that his son Quentin was shot down in France; this loss was the hardest in his life-even more than when he lost his mother and first wife on the same day at the age of 26. He would never fully recover from this and soon fell ill with rheumatism and a pulmonary embolism. As he lay dying, he was unaware that the Republican Party was excitedly planning his nomination for president in 1920.

In 2016, many of the principles Teddy fought for are still with us. We are a better country because of his progressive policies which fought for the collective good of the people instead of the collective good of the elite. Unfortunately, just like the election of 1912, we are fighting corruption in politics, corporations, and the values of equality. Remembering what Teddy fought for makes me appreciate how far America has come and how much more we need to improve.

Theodore Roosevelt vs. Donald Trump

The things that will destroy America are prosperity-at-any-price, peace-at-any-price, safety-first instead of duty-first, the love of soft living, and the get-rich-quick theory of life.

-Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt is my favorite president by far because he accomplished so many unbelievable feats during his lifetime:

-Preserved 150 national forests, 5 national parks, and 18 national monuments.
-He busted up 44 monopolistic corporations and enforced railroad regulations.
-Passed the Meat Inspection Act along with the Pure Food and Drug Act.
-Secured the Panama Canal and negotiated the end of the Russo-Japanese war.
-Conducted two major hunting expeditions to catalog animals for the Smithsonian.
-Published over 35 books and read over 10,000 books.
-Posthumously won the Medal of Honor.
-Was the youngest president in American history.
-He preemptively strengthened the Navy before WWI.
-Negotiated a major coal strike.
-Gave Cuba back to Cubans.
-Invited the first black man ever to dinner at the White House.

Added to these accomplishments is the fact that Roosevelt was an easy going guy who treated everyone with fairness; he was a loving husband and father; and he was passionate about making life for all Americans better. Theodore Roosevelt along with Abraham Lincoln are my two favorite Republicans because they were light years ahead of their time in championing social, economic, and racial equality.

Fast forward to today’s Republican Party. What use to be a party that represented disenfranchised blacks, immigrants, and conservationists is now the party that represents primarily whites who don’t believe in global warming but do believe in xenophobia. The Republican’s main man is now Donald Trump. I am not a fan of Trump because he is in many ways the opposite of Teddy Roosevelt. Roosevelt spent most of his life in public service while Trump spent most of his life expanding his father’s real estate business. The first 50 years of Teddy’s life could be summed up as a non-stop push to make America better. The first 50 years of Trump’s life could be summed up as a non-stop push to inflate his pockets and ego.  Here in lies the greatest difference between these two men-motivation. Roosevelt was a gentleman that treated his opponents with dignity and those who were disenfranchised with respect. Trump is a business man who uses derogatory language and authoritarian philosophies to make deals that increases his net worth regardless of the consequences. Some examples of these consequences include two divorces, four bankruptcies, and a mouth that vomits ridiculous material:

-“I will build a great wall – and nobody builds walls better than me, believe me – and I’ll build them very inexpensively. I will build a great, great wall on our southern border, and I will make Mexico pay for that wall. Mark my words.”
-“You know, it really doesn’t matter what the media write as long as you’ve got a young and beautiful piece of ass.”

-“The beauty of me is that I’m very rich.”

-“I’ve said if Ivanka weren’t my daughter, perhaps I’d be dating her.”

-“The point is, you can never be too greedy.”

-“My IQ is one of the highest — and you all know it! Please don’t feel so stupid or insecure; it’s not your fault.”

-“My fingers are long and beautiful, as, it has been well documented, are various other parts of my body.”

This is the current state of the Republican Party. Trump will not be remembered for his list of accomplishments but rather for his list of stupid comments. Teddy won the Nobel Peace Prize.What will Trump win as President? A spot on Comedy Central’s Roast of Hillary Clinton. Lincoln and Roosevelt would not even fit into the Republican Party of today and I’m sure Trump would find pleasant things to say about the immigrant lover and tree huger. We need a President who embodies the attributes of these two great men-not the attributes of a misogynistic-xenophobic-demagogic-school yard bully.
If you liked this article read Abraham Lincoln vs. Donald Trump for another comparison.

History Class Gave Hitler a Free Pass

Did Hitler come to power on a Monday and subsequently start slaughtering Jews on a Tuesday? The answer is obviously no but we are primarily taught in school about the events of WWII-not how we got to WWII. Usually our history class did a hop skip and jump to the juicy parts to keep our teenage selves from getting bored. Most people’s history knowledge is best described as someone who watched Titanic but only skipped to the sex scene in the car, the naked painting on the couch, the boat sinking, and Jack falling off the door in the water. I am in this same sinking boat with most people and that is why I wanted to read In the Garden of Beasts: Love, Terror, and an American Family in Hitler’s Berlin by Erik Larson. Larson is an excellent writer because he makes nonfiction read like fiction. If you are not the type to read history then you should try Larson-I promise you will not be bored. In the Garden of the Beasts follows the American Ambassador to Germany, William E. Dodd, and his family while they lived in Germany between 1933-1938. The book primarily details the rise of Hitler and the atmosphere of Nazi Germany through the diary of Dodd and Dodd’s daughter-Martha. This family was able to detail what life was like in Nazi Germany and how Hitler slowly morphed into the monster we know of today.

In 1933 Hitler became chancellor of Germany. He did this through subjugating his competition and rallying his people behind the cause of German nationalism. Shortly after Hitler was elected he began to use the Gestapo to put fear into the hearts of Jews, Communists, and anyone who did not see exactly his way. People oftentimes were beaten in the streets or were reported missing for no apparent reason. Even Americans were beaten on many occasions for failing to give the Hail Hitler salute and observing the ceaseless military parades. Furthermore, the Nazis openly passed laws that disbanded Jews from marrying non-Jews, working in certain jobs, and using certain facilities in the city. All these things were well known around the world yet no government spoke up against Hitler’s practices? Why was this? In America it was because of greed and homegrown antisemitism. Firstly, America didn’t want to upset Hitler by condemning these early actions because Germany owed the US a lot of money. The debtors were focused on collecting their interest and Germany was having difficulty making their payments. Secondly, the US had specific immigration policies in place that prevented Jews from coming to the country because there was a clear dislike of Jews among many state officials. This atmosphere was similar in other Western countries and is one reason Hitler was allowed to continue these preliminary policies.

What about the German people? Why didn’t they stop Hitler? Some Germans did try to go against Hitler but most of them were killed or imprisoned for their treason. Most Germans in those early years thought Hitler was not going to last long in politics and would actually step down. Hitler slowly became more forceful in his control over the population and eventually everyone was afraid of espionage and being taken in by the Gestapo. Living in Germany during that time was stressful and scary no matter who you were-no one felt comfortable. It was this atmosphere that allowed Hitler to take full control when President Hindenburg finally passed away. At anytime during those early years Hitler could have been stopped. His policies were disliked by most people in and outside of Germany but nothing was done. Students are taught that the US came in triumphantly, stormed Normandy, defeated Hitler, and freed the Jews in the concentration camps. But when you really look into the details is the US not partially responsible for WWII? Hitler many times over broke the Treaty of Versailles but no Western country stepped in? The reasons for these are many: an isolationist attitude, fear of losing interest payments, the Great Depression, hypocritical racist policies in the South, etc. We can’t go back and change history but what we can do is learn from history. And how can we do this? We need to teach and learn about all the scenes that took place to understand how we got to that point. Without context, Rose getting painted butt naked by her lover, could be Rose getting painted butt naked by her kidnapper. Why is this important today? In America at least, there are still groups of people who are disenfranchised and political leaders who want further disenfranchisement. It seems we want to get right to the action and skip all the details-maybe that is why history repeats itself.

Post 9/11 Potato Salad

Does anyone remember the War in Iraq? The Weapons of Mass Destruction? The invasion in 2003 with nearly everyone’s support? The War in Iraq and then subsequent war in Afghanistan was like a 4th of July party that starts out fun but ends with everyone getting food poisoning from the warm potato salad. We were fired up, we wanted revenge for 9/11, we wanted any excuse to right the wrongs. We got emotional. We didn’t look at all the facts. We jumped in blind holding George Bush’s hand. Eventually we would learn that shooting a hornets nest doesn’t get rid of a dangerous problem but rather makes it far worse. We are yet again repeating these mistakes with rhetoric following the Orlando shooting. There is fear against Muslims, ISIS, radical Islam, terrorists, and future attacks in general. Emotions are getting the best of us and leading us to irrational solutions: prevent all Muslims from entering the country, prosecute neighbors who do not call in suspicious behavior, patrol neighborhoods of Muslim-Americans, etc. How will these measures affect human behavior? They will divide Muslims and Non-Muslims even further. They will tell young Muslim-Americans that they cannot be trusted. They will create an “Us vs Them” mentality in targeted neighborhoods-decreasing the likelihood of sharing information. They will foster hatred, anger, and resentment in high risk individuals who are prone to “Lone-Wolf” attacks. They will shake the hornets nest and release even more dangers for America.

As I have previously written, ISIS does not practice anything close to Islam. It is like saying the white-supremacist Dylann Roof, who killed 9 people in a church last year in Charleston, practices Christianity. After that attack we did not bunch all Christians with Dylann Roof; and yes white-supremacists do use the Holy Bible and radical protestant views regularly in their zeitgeist of beliefs. There are over 1.3 billion Muslims in the world. According to the FBI, between 1980-2005, 94% of terrorist attacks in US were committed by NON-MUSLIMS (Source). During that same time period there were more Jewish terror attacks then Muslim terror attacks. Why don’t we ban all the Jews from coming into the country? Nazi Germany anyone? The reason these facts elude us is that most people get their information from the news. The news loves flaming our emotions and nothing gets us more scared or mad then the headline-RADICAL-ISIS-MUSLIM-TERRORIST KILLS AMERICANS!!! Since 9/11 less than 0.0002% of Americans were killed by Muslims (Source); you have a better chance of dying from your TV crushing you while watching FOX News. If we are going to group all Muslims with terrorists then we should group all Christians with members of the Westboro Baptist Church.

So what is the solution? I know that disenfranchising people and stereotyping whole religions will never bring about positive change. I know that jumping into policies based on emotions will never reap the desired results. I know that human nature is predictable and targeting people will make them more likely to fight back. Let’s take a lesson from our current involvement with fighting ISIS in Iraq and Syria. We are involving the Muslims in the area and empowering them to fight their enemy. The Kurds, Sunnis, and Shiites are all helping fight this terror group with US assistance. They are actually winning the battle and will have the proper infrastructure to fight ISIS in the future. Funny how partnering with Muslims is showing positive outcomes. Partnership is our only way of winning this war. ISIS wants us to fight them (see my previous posts below) and would love a hot head like Trump to be president. Trump would be there number one recruiting tool. Remember the past so we don’t have to repeat another Post 9/11 Potato Salad.

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria-Part 1 of 3

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria-Part 2 of 3

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria-Part 3 of 3

Lehman Brothers: From Superb Cotton to Sub-Prime Mortgages

Does the Financial Crisis of 2008 make you want to punch someone in the face or maybe go run to your cat for a good cry? I would like to punch the bankers, responsible for the world’s most recent economic collapse, right in the man sack. In 2008 I was 18 so naturally Wall Street’s meltdown was not on my radar screen. I have read a couple of books, including Lehman Brothers, 1844-2008: The Last of the Imperious Rich by Peter Chapman. My parents bought me this book for Christmas mainly because it was 70% off (similar to the Lehman Brothers stock in 2008) but I was appreciative because I knew very little about the storied history of this particular investment bank.

Henry Lehman came to America in 1844 from Bavaria and settled in Montgomery, Alabama where he ran a store that sold various goods. His brothers, Emmanuel and Mayer Lehman would join him and in 1850 the store was given the name Lehman Brothers. During the 19th century, cotton was king and the Lehman Brothers would many times accept cotton as a form of payment for their goods; eventually, through this practice, they became brokers-buying, storing, and selling cotton to interested entities. This cotton brokering led them to New York where most commodity trading was taking place. With one foot in the South and one foot in the North they were well placed to invest in both agriculture and industrial operations. This benefited the brothers greatly during and after the Civil War. The Lehmans eventually moved their entire operation to New York in 1870 and continued work in the commodities business until 1906.

In 1906, Phillip Lehman (Emmanuel’s son) brought Lehman Brothers into a new realm of business when he partnered with Goldman Sachs to make General Cigar a public company. Lehman Brothers would go on to underwrite several well known companies: Sears, Studebaker, Woolworth, Gimbel Brothers, Macy’s, Endicott Johnson, Goodrich, etc. Following in Phillip’s footsteps, his son Bobbie Lehman, beginning in 1925 would take the company in the direction of venture capitalism. Lehman Brothers survived the Great Depression by underwriting the first television manufacturer, the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), Halliburton, and the first commercial airlines. The company saw great success through Bobbie’s leadership and had a focus on family partners throughout the 30’s, 40’s, and 50’s. Bobbie died in 1969 which began the era of non-Lehmans running Lehman Brothers.

The 60’s, 70’s, and 80’s showed promising growth for the firm with a transition from underwriting companies to complex trading through newly introduced computers. By the 90’s Lehman Brothers was among the biggest traders on Wall Street and had been bought by American Express. The tangible commodities of the past were replaced in the tech age by extremely complex-virtual stocks. One of Lehman Brothers favorite investments were in bundled sub-prime mortgages. Lehman Brothers would end up leveraging almost all they had on these toxic investments and in the end they would fail because of them. In 2008, Lehman Brothers stock would plummet 90% and they would file the largest bankruptcy in history-613 Billion Dollars. This would, in large part, become the cause of the Financial Crisis of 2008 and send the world into a recession that is still felt today.

Native Americans Conquer the English! Why History Wasn’t Reversed-Part 1

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Why didn’t 16th century Native Americans sail to England, claim land for their queen, and nearly decimate the English race? Why did Francisco Pizarro conquer the entire Incan Empire instead of Atahuallpa sailing over to Spain and exerting his dominance? We all know the immediate answers to these questions: Europeans had guns, germs, and steel that made it easy to overcome their “savage” opponents. But the real question is why did Europeans develop guns, germs, and steel while so many other civilizations did not? What forces caused different groups of people to develop technology and innovations at different rates? Did civilizations advance differently because of superior genetics or environmental variables? Honestly, I never thought about these questions until I borrowed my friend’s book Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies by Jared Diamond. This is a must read and it actually won the Pulitzer Prize-the exorbitant detail in this book makes it an eye-opener that will change your perspective of the modern world. A common thought is that Europeans were more advanced then Africans/Indians/Insert Non-White Person because they worked harder and were generally smarter. This was the primary logic for most of history and is partly responsible for the mental foundation of slavery, racism, segregation, and general exploitation of non-white races.Today, scientists are trying to objectively answer the question of why societies advanced differently early on in history? The short answer to this big question is that genetics played no role in the differences, what mattered most was environmental luck.

So what is environmental luck? Environmental luck, in respects to civilization formation, entails three key components: available wild plants for domestication, available large mammals for domestication, and continent-axis orientations. 10,500 years ago agriculture began in the fertile crescent (modern day Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Egypt); China would soon follow 1,000 years afterwards. Agriculture in Mesoamerica, the Andes, and Amazonia independently began in 3500 B.C-the Eastern United States coming in last at 2500 B.C. Why was there such a big time disparity between these groups and plant domestication? One of the key reasons was that the Fertile Crescent and China were home to 33 large grass species: wheat, rice, barley, millet, etc. These wild grass species were abundant due to the vast land areas of Eurasia, numerous Mediterranean climates and large elevation changes. Early domestication was advantageous over hunter gathering in these two areas because these grass species provided easy nutrition (today the world gets 50% of its calories from grass plants). This cornucopia of seed plants in Eurasia is contrasted by the meek number available in the Americas-only 4 species in North America, 5 in Mesoamerica, and 2 in South America. Agriculture in Eurasia was further assisted by large mammals which were domesticated. Of all large mammals, Eurasia had 13 species (think cows, pigs, goats, sheep, camels, and horses) which were good candidates for domestication; a good domestication candidate needs to have a certain diet, growth rate, breeding behavior, disposition, and social structure. The Americas, Australia, and Africa only had 1 mammal that was suitable for domestication-dogs. These domesticated animals increased agricultural yield, provided food, and transferred germs to humans. Domesticated animals are the source of some of mankind’s most deadly diseases: Measles (cattle), Tuberculosis (cattle), Smallpox (cattle), Flu (pigs and ducks), Pertussis (pigs, dogs), Falciparum malaria (chickens and ducks), etc. This exposure to germs would eventually wipe out the majority of New World inhabitants and make it possible for Europeans to conquer native people throughout the world. The last key factor of environmental luck was the axis orientation of the continents. Eurasia’s axis stretches east to west with large spans of land on similar latitudes (Think England and China). The Americas and Africa axis’ stretch North to South with huge changes in latitudes (think Canada vs Chili). Similar latitudes meant similar day lengths and weather patterns which allowed for the rapid spread of agriculture across Eurasia. The wide range of latitudes in the Americas/Africa made the spread of agriculture difficult because of drastically different weather and seasons going north to south.

The environmental factors of Eurasia provided it with a lucky head start in respects to efficient agriculture. This head start wasn’t because of the people’s innovation but rather a host of key factors which included climate, plant availability, animal availability, and overall geography. Eurasia’s efficient agriculture (large seed plants and domesticated animals) would eventually lead to the first civilizations (Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley, China). Agriculture and domestication allowed individuals to specialize in jobs unrelated to food production: government officials, laborers, craftsmen, scribes, religious figures. The ability to have specialized positions provided groups of people to innovate and advance in technology. This progression of civilization in Eurasia was already full force before the America’s first signs of agriculture. The civilizations of the Fertile Crescent and Asia would soon spread through the continent and bring about metallurgy, alphabets, and organized warfare. The prerequisites of guns, germs, and steel were all based on the ability to efficiently grow food. And the prerequisites for growing food were a host of environmental factors that led to some lucky people being in the right place at the right time. To be continued.

The Confederate Battle “Cry”-ing

On Friday, I went to see the fireworks in Baroda, Michigan to celebrate the Fourth of July. To my dismay, I saw several large Confederate flags flying in the back of excessively large pickup trucks. I found this perplexing because these were Michiganders who, during the Civil War, fought against the south; in one example, the entirety of males in Flint, MI, with the mayor as their commander, signed up do defend the union during America’s bloodiest war. What does the Confederate Flag represent in today’s age? State’s rights? Racism? Heritage? Pride? I believe it is a combination of all those things with groups emphasizing certain meanings to suit their agendas (think the KKK with racism and the state of South Carolina with heritage).  I wanted to know more about the Confederacy and the Civil War in general so I read The Civil War by Geoffrey Ward. I highly recommend this book because it not only goes over the war in understandable detail but it also has essays that explain why the war came about, who freed the slaves,the politics of war, the views of the men who fought, and what the war did to shape US history.

The Civil War began on April 12th, 1861 when Fort Sumter in South Carolina was taken by the Confederacy. The first shot of the war occurred in the first state that seceded from the Union. Actually, South Carolina seceded on December 20th, 1860 as a direct result of Abraham Lincoln being elected one month prior; seven states would secede before Lincoln was even inaugurated. Why did these state’s hate Abraham Lincoln so much? The answer is complex but Lincoln was the first president in the history of the United States who had a political agenda to prevent the spread of slavery. He did not want to initially abolish slavery but he did not want it to spread to the new territories acquired by the Mexican-American War. Lincoln believed that slavery would eventually extinguish itself in the south and that there was no need to abolish it during his term. The South, felt threatened by this very moderate platform and believed that a Republican administration would lead to a world where slave holding would be stigmatized as morally wrong, slaves would be encouraged to rise up against their masters, and racial equality would exist. The newly formed Confederate States of America adopted the US constitution but made one major amendment-slavery could never be abolished. This one fact makes it quite obvious that the Confederacy was formed because of slavery and nothing else. The argument of State’s Rights is a hard sale because the Confederate government made no concessions in their adopted US constitution to increase State’s Rights and it actually infringed upon State’s Rights by enforcing the first draft in history. Furthermore, the North had just as many “State’s Rights” transgressions related to slavery with the enforcement of the Fugitive-Slave Act and the Dred Scott decision which essentially said slavery could not be prohibited in any of the “Free States.”

To simply put it, 11 southern states ran away from the union, crying like spoiled children, because they “believed” they wouldn’t be allowed to enslave people anymore. This tantrum led to the death of over 600,000 people to restore the Union and to finally force the end of slavery. So what does the Confederate flag represent? It represents the continuation of slavery at all costs-including the death of it’s citizens and the once great Union that it broke from. Is this the “Heritage” that Confederate flag supporters are talking about? Are you proud of a heritage of ignorance, political paranoia, and innumerable-citizen deaths for the continuation of slavery? I’m not, and that is why the Confederate flag should not be associated with any government institution today. We are the United States of America and the only flag we should be flying is the one with 50 stars-promoting the idea that we are a synergistic union of states which strives for freedom and equal treatment of all its citizens. Happy Fourth of July 🙂

The General, The Tank, The William Tecumseh Sherman

After quite a long moving process, I am finally settled into my “Moby Dick” house and quite happy. The process of furnishing, organizing, and copious hours of cleaning left me without much time to read or write. Thankfully, the project is winding down and I have been masterfully avoiding my wife’s “To-Do” list that was placed on the refrigerator like a black spot of death. Tomorrow, I am going to a Civil War reenactment in celebration of the 150th anniversary since the bloody war ended at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9th, 1865. My high school education on the Civil War was quite shallow and I believe we spent about a week on the entire subject. Desiring to expand my knowledge before the reenactment, I checked out Fierce Patriot:The Tangled Lives of William Tecumseh Sherman by Robert L O’Connell. I picked this book up because the cover looked cool and I knew absolutely nothing about General Sherman and his role in the Civil War.

Sherman was a West Point graduate with fiery-red hair and a strong sense of pride in the ever expanding United States. He took many different jobs throughout the country and displayed a sense of desire for adventure and career advancement. When very young, his father died and was subsequently adopted by the wealthy Ohio senator-Thomas Ewing. He ended up marrying his foster sister Ellen Ewing but spent most the time away from her because she preferred being in Ohio with her father. Sherman was first appointed to colonel of the 13th U.S. Infantry regiment and with his brave performance at the First Battle of Bull Run was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers by Abraham Lincoln. After a nervous breakdown and a bout of mental illness while in Kentucky, Sherman was able to find his military-sweet spot working under Grant’s command in the battles of Shiloh, Vicksburg, Chattanooga, and Atlanta among others. Sherman is best known for his fierce psychological warfare against the south in his March to the Sea campaign. After burning most of Atlanta, Sherman marched through Georgia foraging, burning, and looting civilian property. This march culminated with the capture of Savannah, Georgia and Charleston, South Carolina-both capitols burned and ransacked to crush all confederate hopes. Sherman was a strategic genius and ushered in a new era of warfare in which civilian supporters were fair game in the hazards of war (think Hiroshima during WWII). Beyond just strategy, Sherman was a gregarious general who was given the nickname “Uncle Billy” because he was extremely approachable and friendly to all his soldiers. His later life was filled with a celebrity untainted by the smearing affects of politics (unlike the fate of Ulysses S. Grant) and a quite prominent career completing the transcontinental railroad.

Sherman by no means was not a perfect man: black equality was not a concern to him, he wanted all the buffalo extinct so that the Native Americans would be forced to move to reservations, and he had a fair share of affairs with various women. I admire Sherman in his career accomplishments more then his personal accomplishments. The man knew how to get the job done and was extremely confidant in himself while not being overly pretentious. Thankfully, he had a strong desire to keep the Union together because if he fought for the Confederacy the outcome of the Civil War may have been different; this being a strong possibility because he actually was the founder of a military school in Louisiana when the war first broke out. Sherman in the end helped shape the physical and ideological America we know today-uniting North, South, East, and West with an uncompromising vision of progress.

The Problem with America

To be honest, I think most American’s are mindless sheep that are constantly shepherded around by media, consumer culture, and politicians. A poll by Newsweek found that among 1000 Americans… “Seventy-three percent couldn’t correctly say why we fought the Cold War. Forty-four percent were unable to define the Bill of Rights. And 6 percent couldn’t even circle Independence Day on a calendar (Reference).” My opinions concerning Americans are harsh because I am an extremely patriotic American who wants his country to prosper and be the best it can be. I love American History and have pride in how far America has come in advancing her citizens and the world in general. When asked what my nationality is I usually say that I am “American.” My love for my country led me to read Glenn Beck’s book Common Sense: The Case Against An Out-Of-Control Government, Inspired by Thomas Paine. I am not political and Glenn Beck wrote this book trying to be non-partisan. Glenn is a very outspoken guy when it comes to government power and throughout the book he has a heart attack over federal debt, the confusing tax-code, corrupt politicians, and the “cancer” of progressivism. While reading the book, I felt a mix of approval and disgust with Beck’s views on how to fix America. I agree with his views on reducing the national debt, reforming the tax code, and shortening politicians’ careers. I disagree with his views that global warming is a hoax and that progressivism is a cancer. The progressive movement is essentially a push by Republicans and Democrats to have the government control more of our money and redistribute it to state funded programs. Think Obamacare for Democrats and the military for Republicans.

The manner that Beck goes about explaining his common sense is by misrepresenting history and saying “Wake Up People” several times. First, he talks about the founding fathers and how they wanted small government and respected the constitution. In truth, Washington wanted a more powerful government and he was regularly accused of trying to become a king by wig wearing versions of Beck’s early ancestors. Also, he took several measures of executive action with the idea that the constitution didn’t have all the answers. Secondly, he bashes on my favorite president, Theodore Roosevelt, as an evil progressive-constitution hating man who set the country on the course of its current destruction. Roosevelt was president in a time when corporate greed was destroying America’s workers, environment, and political system. Without his progressive reforms we would not have any national parks, workplace safety, or corporate regulations. 

Beck doesn’t have it all wrong and besides him bashing Teddy I think he has the best intentions in trying to help America. The thing is, his approach is all wrong. Common sense is not to blame the government or corrupt politicians. Common sense is to blame the Americans who elected those politicians. Americans who think that political parties are out to help so they vote straight ticket. Americans who constantly reelect the same politicians who are a part of a congress that gets nothing done. Americans who don’t read or seek out information other then the nightly news and Facebook. Americans who think that one political party is completely wrong and that one political party is completely right. Americans who would choose material possessions and status over a healthy waist line and a critically thinking brain. Our screwed up government is just an extension of our complacency in this country for sloth and avarice at the individual level. The only thing you can control is yourself and by fixing yourself you can then extend help to others in your life. Ghandi said it best, “Be the change you want to see in the world.” That is my common sense and I think that we first need to have a foundation of morals, ethics, and wisdom before we can expect the same in our government. Don’t be a sheep, use your brain, and care for your country.